Category Archives: Zearalenone

Norway – Analyzes of nutrients, heavy metals and mycotoxins in cereal products 2021


The Institute of Marine Research (HI) has, on behalf of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, performed analyzes of nutrients, heavy metals and mycotoxins in grain products. The purpose of the project “Analyzes of nutrients, heavy metals and mycotoxins in grain products” is to obtain nutrient values ​​for the Food Table and control the products for foreign substances.

What we investigated:
  • The analyzed products are; oatmeal, organic oatmeal, sifted wheat flour, spelled wheat flour, organic wheat flour, whole wheat flour, sifted rye flour, whole rye flour, finely ground barley flour and bran.
  • The producers: AXA, Kolonihagen, Møllerens and Regal.
  • A total of 45 aggregate samples. Each sample consisted of three different batches from each manufacturer.
Period: The analyzes were performed in the period November-December 2019 (sample 1), and in August-September 2020 (sample 2) and five grain products in February 2021 (sample 3).
What we were looking for: The project has provided analysis data for the content of nutrients and foreign substances in grain products from the grocery trade.

 The project has provided analytical values ​​for ash, protein, fat, fatty acids, sugars, starch, dietary fiber, β -carotene, thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (B6), folate, vitamin C , vitamin E, vitamin K1, vitamin K2, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, selenium, iodine, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, and the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone, T2 HT2 and enniatin for 40 grain products. The grain products in sample 3 (5 products) were only analyzed for fat, protein, ash, starch and dietary fiber.

What we found: The results show that the levels of the heavy metals in the cereal products analyzed are below the limit values ​​that apply to arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury and mycotoxins.

The results show a higher content of dietary fiber in Norwegian grain products than before. This can be explained by the use of an analysis method (AOAC 2009.1) that includes several dietary fiber compounds.

The Norwegian Food Safety Authority will inform affected companies about the analysis project.

Who performed the assignment? Institute of Marine Research

Research – Mycotoxins Affecting Animals, Foods, Humans, and Plants: Types, Occurrence, Toxicities, Action Mechanisms, Prevention, and Detoxification Strategies—A Revisit


CDC Fusarium1

Mycotoxins are produced by fungi and are known to be toxic to humans and animals. Common mycotoxins include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, patulin, sterigmatocystin, citrinin, ergot alkaloids, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, trichothecenes, Alternaria toxins, tremorgenic mycotoxins, fusarins, 3-nitropropionic acid, cyclochlorotine, sporidesmin, etc. These mycotoxins can pose several health risks to both animals and humans, including death. As several mycotoxins simultaneously occur in nature, especially in foods and feeds, the detoxification and/or total removal of mycotoxins remains challenging. Moreover, given that the volume of scientific literature regarding mycotoxins is steadily on the rise, there is need for continuous synthesis of the body of knowledge. To supplement existing information, knowledge of mycotoxins affecting animals, foods, humans, and plants, with more focus on types, toxicity, and prevention measures, including strategies employed in detoxification and removal, were revisited in this work. Our synthesis revealed that mycotoxin decontamination, control, and detoxification strategies cut across pre-and post-harvest preventive measures. In particular, pre-harvest measures can include good agricultural practices, fertilization/irrigation, crop rotation, using resistant varieties of crops, avoiding insect damage, early harvesting, maintaining adequate humidity, and removing debris from the preceding harvests. On the other hand, post-harvest measures can include processing, chemical, biological, and physical measures. Additionally, chemical-based methods and other emerging strategies for mycotoxin detoxification can involve the usage of chitosan, ozone, nanoparticles, and plant extracts. View Full-Text

Spain – Mycotoxin update on the Hazard Map


In the Hazard Map database, we have updated all the sheets corresponding to the mycotoxins of the chemical hazards block:

  • Aflatoxins
  • Ochratoxins
  • Zearalenone
  • Deoxynivalenol
  • Fumonisins
  • Trichothecenes T-2 and HT2
  • Patulin

Mycotoxins are products of fungal metabolism and their ingestion, inhalation or skin absorption can cause disease or death in animals and people. The most important mycotoxins are produced by molds of the genera Aspergillus , Penicillium and Fusarium .

Among the most common mycotoxins are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearanelone, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 and HT-2 toxins.

Research – Animal Health – Mycotoxin – Beauvericin a Fusarium Mycotoxin

All About Feed

Beauvericin is a Fusarium mycotoxin known for its antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties, but it also causes oxidative stress and cell death.

Although these biological activities are mainly interesting for drug development, chronic animal exposure to such a chemical via feed will certainly influence performance and health status. Even though this mycotoxin is still ‘emerging’, its presence in feed materials has been known for many years.

Beauvericin (BEA) is commonly found as a co-contaminant in grains where other Fusarium mycotoxins such as Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Zearalenone (ZEA) are present. From the feedstuffs we evaluate at Schothorst Feed Research (SFR), BEA is often detected in corn and soy hulls at levels varying from 10 to 500 µg/kg. However, much higher contamination levels have been reported by others. As was published by All About Feed in 2010, a study performed in South Korea showed that 27% of feed ingredients were then contaminated with BEA at levels up to 1.8 mg/kg (almost 4 times higher than our findings). These levels can be extremely high, reaching circa 500 mg/kg in corn as was reported by Logrieco and others in the 1990s. Although these are extreme levels and they only occur occasionally, the constant presence of this mycotoxin is feedstuffs should be of concern to nutritionists and veterinarians.

Research – Mycotoxin Analysis: 90% of samples show presence of DON

All About Feed

Trouw Nutrition, a Nutreco company, recently release findings from the 2019 Global Mycotoxin Risk Analysis in a live webinar. The analysis includes more than 21,000 ingredient and finished feed samples collected from 38 countries across Europe, North America, South/Central America, Middle East/Africa and Asia.

90% of samples showed presence of DON

The analysis shows that of the global crop samples collected in 2019, more than 90% had a quantifiable presence (>100 ppb) of DON, with between 80 and 90% of samples showing FUMO, AFLAOTA and ZEA T-2 levels were lowest, at about 70%. (Figure 1). The 2019 mycotoxin risk analysis includes analysis for individual ingredients, complete feeds and silages including small grains (wheat and barley) which tested at as high as 88% for DON, to 59% for AFLA. Among byproducts, concentrations in DDGS were significantly higher than in maize, with levels approaching 5,000 ppb. Looking at protein meals, concentrations of mycotoxins were relatively low compared to cereal grains. However, soybean meal is used at about 25-30% of monogastric diets, and hence can contribute significantly to concentration of toxins in final feed. Sunflower meal showed the greatest concentration of FUMO while levels of DON, AFLA and ZEA were lower. Among silages, 100% of maize and grass silage samples showed mycotoxin contamination with concentrations that can cause toxicity in ruminant animals.

Research – New bacteria strain isolated to reduce Zearalenone – Mycotoxin – Lysinibacillus sp

All About Feed

Several physical and chemical technologies are used for inactivation or elimination of the mycotoxin zearalenone. A new bacteria strain that can reduce this mycotoxin has now been added to the list.

Zearalenone (ZEA) is produced by various strains of the genus Fusarium, most notably Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium cerealis. The growth of Fusarium is affected by various factors (temperature, moisture content of grains, microbial interactions, etc.), and a large amount of ZEA can accumulate in mouldy crops and cereal-derived food products, which frequently leads to reproductive abnormalities of domestic animals and occasionally in hyperoestrogenism in humans.

Research – 2017 BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey Results


The latest edition of the annual survey, covering 18757 agricultural commodity samples from 72 countries with over 73000 analyses, highlights the main dangers from the most important mycotoxins in primary feedstuffs and their potential risk to livestock animal production.

The survey results provide an insight on the incidence of aflatoxins (Afla), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), fumonisins (FUM) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in the primary components used for feed which include corn (maize), wheat, barley, rice, soybean meal, corn gluten meal, dried distillers grains (DDGS) and silage, among others.

RASFF Alert – Mycotoxins – DON -Zearalone – Granola Purple Musli Mix


RASFF-deoxynivalenol (DON) (15.28 mg/kg – ppm) and zearalenone (16.45 mg/kg – ppm) in granola purple müsli mix from Switzerland in Switzerland

Information – Regional Results of Global Mycotoxin Occurrence through June 2018


Since 2004, the BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey Program constitutes the longest running, and most comprehensive survey of its kind. It details the incidence of the main mycotoxins occurring in agricultural commodities, which include aflatoxins (Afla), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), fumonisins (FUM) and ochratoxin A (OTA).

The survey focuses on components that are used for feed such as corn, wheat, barley, rice, soybean meal, corn gluten meal, dried distillers grains (DDGS) and silage, among others.

From January to June 2018, the BIOMIN scientists have tested 8,310 samples, from different regions around the world.

Figure 1. Occurrence of mycotoxins worldwide through Q2 2018. Average of all samples collected by BIOMIN.