Join 8,361 other subscribers
- 307,914 Views
Category Archives: DON
Composition-Based Risk Estimation of Mycotoxins in Dry Dog Foods
The risk of mycotoxins co-occurrence in extrusion-produced dry foods increases due to their composition based on various grains and vegetables. This study aimed to validate a risk estimation for the association between ingredients and the ELISA-detected levels of DON, FUM, ZEA, AFs, T2, and OTA in 34 dry dog food products. The main ingredients were corn, beet, and oil of different origins (of equal frequency, 79.41%), rice (67.6%), and wheat (50%). DON and FUM had the strongest positive correlation (0.635, p = 0.001). The presence of corn in the sample composition increased the median DON and ZEA levels, respectively, by 99.45 μg/kg and 65.64 μg/kg, p = 0.011. In addition to DON and ZEA levels, integral corn presence increased the FUM median levels by 886.61 μg/kg, p = 0.005. For corn gluten flour-containing samples, DON, FUM, and ZEA median differences still existed, and OTA levels also differed by 1.99 μg/kg, p < 0.001. Corn gluten flour presence was strongly associated with DON levels >403.06 μg/kg (OR = 38.4, RR = 9.90, p = 0.002), FUM levels >1097.56 μg/kg (OR = 5.56, RR = 1.45, p = 0.048), ZEA levels >136.88 μg/kg (OR = 23.00, RR = 3.09, p = 0.002), and OTA levels >3.93 μg/kg (OR = 24.00, RR = 3.09, p = 0.002). Our results suggest that some ingredients or combinations should be avoided due to their risk of increasing mycotoxin levels.
Posted in Aflatoxin, Animal Feed, Animal Feed Mould Toxin, Animal Feed Testing, Aspergillus Toxin, Decontamination Microbial, deoxynivalenol, DON, Food Micro Blog, Food Microbiology Blog, Food Toxin, Fumomisins, Fumonsins, Fusarium Toxin, microbial contamination, Microbial growth, Microbiological Risk Assessment, Microbiology, Microbiology Investigations, Microbiology Risk, Mold Toxin, Mould Toxin, Mycotoxin, Ochratoxin A, OTA, Pet Food, Pet Food Aflatoxin, Pet Food Testing, Zearalenone
Research – Evaluation of the dietary exposure of the Catalan population to mycotoxins of the genus Fusarium
Within the framework of total diet studies, the Catalan Food Safety Agency (ACSA) publishes a second study on the evaluation of mycotoxins: “Evaluation of the dietary exposure of the Catalan population to mycotoxins of the genus Fusarium”.
In 2014, a first study was published in which the presence of the main mycotoxins in food intended for human consumption in the Catalan market was determined, and the intake of food linked to this contamination to estimate the food exposure of the population residing in Catalonia, and evaluate the risk to health (ACSA, 2014). Considering the results obtained, the ACSA considered it necessary to carry out this second, more specific study on mycotoxins, evaluating those that were found most frequently in the foods of the Catalan market, the mycotoxins of the genus Fusarium, and also taking into account the most exposed population groups.
The present study shows that the mycotoxins detected with greater frequency were DON and ENNB followed, with a much lower frequency, by mycotoxin T-2 and mycotoxins FB1 and DON-3G. The rest of mycotoxins analyzed (3-ADON, 15-ADON, NIV, FUS-X, zearalenone, HT-2, FB2 and FB3) will always present levels below the detection limit.
All the age groups evaluated have an exposure to DON and ENNB lower than the respective safety values. The average exposure of the adult population and children in Catalonia to the mycotoxin DON presents values between 7.5% and 10.1% of the safety value. The average exposure of the population to ENNB presents values that are two orders of magnitude lower than the extrapolated safety values.
Total diet studies make it possible to better understand the reality linked to the main chemical pollutants that reach the Catalan market, and in this way specific decisions can be made to correct possible risk situations for the health of consumers.
Posted in ACSA, Aflatoxin, Aflatoxin B1, Aspergillus Toxin, deoxynivalenol, DON, Food Micro Blog, Food Microbiology, Food Microbiology Blog, Food Microbiology Research, Food Microbiology Testing, Food Toxin, Fusarium Toxin, microbial contamination, Microbial growth, Microbiological Risk Assessment, Microbiology, Microbiology Investigations, Microbiology Risk, Mold Toxin, Mould Toxin, Mycotoxin, Ochratoxin, Ochratoxin A, Toxin, Zearalenone
Research – From Aflatoxin to Zearalenone: Mycotoxins You Should Know – Deoxynivalenol (DON)
Mycotoxins are substances produced by fungi that infect grain crops like maize and small grains and cause ear and kernel rots. Exposure to mycotoxins can lead to chronic or acute toxicity in humans and animals. In addition, mycotoxins can lead to market losses, discounts, rejection of grain lots at elevators, and a reduction in livestock efficiency and productivity.
The most economically important mycotoxins include aflatoxins (AF), deoxynivalenol (DON, also known as vomitoxin), fumonisins (FUM), zearalenone (ZEA), ochratoxin A (OTA), T2, HT-2, ergot alkaloids, and patulin (PAT). The fungal species that produce mycotoxins have worldwide distribution; therefore, mycotoxin contamination occurs everywhere grain crops are grown. Accordingly, mycotoxins have been detected in feed, silage, food, and beverages derived from cereal grains and animal products exposed to contaminated feed.
Posted in Aflatoxin, Aflatoxin B1, Animal Feed Mould Toxin, Animal Feed Testing, Aspergillus Toxin, Decontamination Microbial, deoxynivalenol, DON, Ergot, Ergot Alkaloids, Food Micro Blog, Food Microbiology, Food Microbiology Blog, Food Microbiology Research, Food Microbiology Testing, Food Toxin, Fumomisins, Fumonsins, Fusarium Toxin, microbial contamination, Microbial growth, Microbiological Risk Assessment, Microbiology, Microbiology Investigations, Microbiology Risk, Mold Toxin, Mould Toxin, Mycotoxin, Ochratoxin A, Patulin, Zearalenone
Research – The Investigation of Mycotoxins and Enterobacteriaceae of Cereal-Based Baby Foods Marketed in Turkey
In this study, a total of 85 cereal-based baby foods with or without milk (four different brands; A, B, C, and D) collected from Ankara local markets, Turkey were analyzed for mycotoxins, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), and Enterobacteriaceae contamination. Baby foods were analyzed for 12 toxicological important mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2; fumonisin B1 and B2; ochratoxin A; sterigmatocystin (STE); deoxynivalenol (DON); zearalenone (ZON); and T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin by LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin method. In addition to these mycotoxins, the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was investigated in baby foods containing milk. The classical culture method was used for microbiological analysis. Consequently, at least one mycotoxin was detected in 69.41% of the total samples. The most frequently detected mycotoxins were STE (34.12%) and HT-2 (34.12%). However, AFM1 was not detected in any of the baby foods containing milk. Also, TAMB and Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 30.59% and 10.59% of samples, respectively. As a result, it was determined that the mycotoxin levels in the analyzed samples were in accordance with the mycotoxin levels specified in the Turkish Food Codex.
Posted in Aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, DON, Enterobacteriaceae, Food Micro Blog, Food Microbiology, Food Microbiology Research, Food Microbiology Testing, Food Toxin, Fusarium Toxin, HT-2, microbial contamination, Microbiological Risk Assessment, Microbiology, Microbiology Investigations, Mold Toxin, Mould Toxin, Mycotoxin, Ochratoxin, Research, T-2, Zearalenone
RASFF Alert – Animal Feed – Mycotoxin – DON – Deoxynivalenol – Corn Grain
Exceeding the level of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the product: “corn grain” from France in Poland
Norway – Analyzes of nutrients, heavy metals and mycotoxins in cereal products 2021
The Institute of Marine Research (HI) has, on behalf of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, performed analyzes of nutrients, heavy metals and mycotoxins in grain products. The purpose of the project “Analyzes of nutrients, heavy metals and mycotoxins in grain products” is to obtain nutrient values for the Food Table and control the products for foreign substances.
|What we investigated:||
|Period:||The analyzes were performed in the period November-December 2019 (sample 1), and in August-September 2020 (sample 2) and five grain products in February 2021 (sample 3).|
|What we were looking for:||The project has provided analysis data for the content of nutrients and foreign substances in grain products from the grocery trade.
The project has provided analytical values for ash, protein, fat, fatty acids, sugars, starch, dietary fiber, β -carotene, thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (B6), folate, vitamin C , vitamin E, vitamin K1, vitamin K2, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, selenium, iodine, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, and the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone, T2 HT2 and enniatin for 40 grain products. The grain products in sample 3 (5 products) were only analyzed for fat, protein, ash, starch and dietary fiber.
|What we found:||The results show that the levels of the heavy metals in the cereal products analyzed are below the limit values that apply to arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury and mycotoxins.
The results show a higher content of dietary fiber in Norwegian grain products than before. This can be explained by the use of an analysis method (AOAC 2009.1) that includes several dietary fiber compounds.
The Norwegian Food Safety Authority will inform affected companies about the analysis project.
|Who performed the assignment?||Institute of Marine Research|
Posted in deoxynivalenol, DON, Enniatin, Food Micro Blog, Food Microbiology, Food Microbiology Blog, Food Microbiology Research, Food Microbiology Testing, microbial contamination, Microbiological Risk Assessment, Microbiology, Microbiology Investigations, Mold Toxin, Mould Toxin, Mycotoxin, T2 HT2, Zearalenone
RASFF Alert – Mycotoxin – DON – Popcorn
deoxynivalenol (DON) (2174 µg/kg – ppb) in popcorn from Hungary, packaged in Poland in Poland
Posted in deoxynivalenol, DON, food contamination, Food Hygiene, Food Inspections, Food Micro Blog, Food Microbiology, Food Microbiology Blog, Food Microbiology Testing, Food Poisoning, food recall, Food Safety, Food Safety Alert, Food Temperature Abuse, Food Testing, Food Toxin, Fusarium Toxin, Mold Toxin, Mould Toxin, Mycotoxin, RASFF, Toxin
Ireland – Recall of a Batch of Makar Bakalie Popcorn Due to Elevated Deoxynivalenol (DON) – Mycotoxin
Thursday, 7 January 2021
|Category 2:||For Information|
|Product:||Makar Bakalie Popcorn ziarno kukurydzy do prazenia; pack size: 100g|
|Batch Code:||6447 2710; best before: 01/09/2021|
|Country Of Origin:||Hungary|
A batch of Makar Bakalie Popcorn is being recalled as it contains Deoxynivalenol (DON) in excess of the legal limit. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurring predominantly in cereal grains. Short-term (acute) exposure to high levels of DON has been reported to cause symptoms including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, headaches, dizziness and fever in humans. Evidence of adverse health effects in humans due to long-term (chronic) exposure to DON is lacking, however, adverse effects such as reduced body weight gain have been observed in animal studies. The levels of DON detected exceed the maximum legal limit, however, health concerns are not expected from consuming the implicated batch.
Posted in deoxynivalenol, DON, food contamination, Food Inspections, Food Micro Blog, Food Microbiology, Food Microbiology Blog, Food Microbiology Testing, Food Poisoning, food recall, Food Safety, Food Safety Alert, Food Temperature Abuse, Food Testing, Food Toxin, Fusarium Toxin, Mold Toxin, Mould Toxin, Mycotoxin
India – FSSAI issues new manual for analysing aflatoxin in food
According to the FSSAI all food samples suspected of being contaminated with mycotoxins must be handled with extreme care, as aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic substances.
The manual talks about personal safety precautions, precautions during analysis and handling of glassware for aflatoxin analysis.
Currently, the regulatory limits for mycotoxins in food as defined by the FSSAI include 15 microgram per kg in cereals, and cereal products, pulses, nuts and nuts for further processing. For Aflatoxins the limit is prescribed at 10 microgram per kg for ready to eat products, and dried figs, while 30 microgram per kg for spices and for oilseeds for further processing, the limit is set at 15 microgram per kg.
Similarly, the limit of Aflatoxin M1 in milk is 0.5 microgram per kg, Ochratoxin A in wheat, barley and rye is at 20 microgram per kg, and for Patulin, the limit is 50mcrogram per kg in apple juice and apple juice ingredients in other beverages.
Further, the limit for Deoxynivalenol in wheat is fixed at 1000ppm.
Mycotoxins—toxic secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi—are biological in origin. Only a few of the thousands of mycotoxins present significant food safety challenges to the farm-to-fork food continuum. The natural fungal flora associated with food safety is dominated by three genres: Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium.
Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites and aflatoxin-producing fungi can contaminate crops in the field, at harvest, and during storage. Some of the more common crops susceptible to contamination with aflatoxins are cereals (e.g. maize, rice and wheat). The husk of these cereals are often used as animal feed.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) Deoxynivalenol (DON) also known as vomitoxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium fungi (Fusarium molds). This plant pathogens can cause scab mainly in wheat and barley etc., and damages cereals the most widely by contamination in the field. The main commodities affected are cereals such as wheat, rice, barley, oats and maize etc.
Patulin is a mycotoxin that is produced by certain species of Penicillium, Apergillus, and Byssochylamys molds that may grow on a variety of foods including fruit, grains, and cheese while Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a naturally occurring foodborne mycotoxin found in a wide variety of agricultural commodities worldwide, ranging from cereal grains to dried fruits to wine and coffee.
RASFF Alert – Mycotoxin -DON – Wheat
deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat from the Czech Republic in Germany