Category Archives: Mycotoxin

Research – Evaluation of the effects of temperature on processed coffee beans in the presence of fungi and ochratoxin A

Wiley Online

Abstract

The coffee bean is sensitive to contamination with ocratoxigenic fungi; temperature influences the growth, and germination of these fungi, as well as the fungal toxins produced. The objectives of this study were to assess the distribution of toxigenic species, analyze the concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Arabica coffee beans, and aplicate a mathematical model that considers the influence of actual temperature to predict the effects of projected temperature increase on OTA production. This toxin was, however, not detected in any of the coffee bean species analyzed here. The species with the highest incidence were Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus ochraceus. The results of the mathematical model demonstrated the influence of temperature on the production of the toxin. This information indicates the distribution of toxigenic fungal species in the regions of coffee cultivation in Minas Gerais, and thus, will assist the producers in adopting preventive measures.

Practical applications

Brazil is the largest coffee producer and exporter, which makes it a leader in the global coffee market; the state of Minas Gerais is responsible for 50% of this production. Following the global trend, Brazil has regulated the maximum permissible limit for ochratoxin A in coffee beans. This has led to a great interest in monitoring fungi and toxin production, mainly during the postharvest stage in the coffee cultivation regions of Brazil. Preventive measures can aid in the safe production of coffee beans, and the use of mathematical models capable of predicting the growth and production of fungal toxins are fundamental to informing the producers of the most favorable conditions in terms of temperature, as well as increases in ambient temperature, in specific regions of interest

RASFF Alert – Aflatoxin – Hazelnuts – Blanched Groundnuts – Groundnuts – Pistachios – Organic Muesli

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RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 21; Tot. = 22 µg/kg – ppb) in hazelnuts from Turkey in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 6.7; Tot. = 7.7 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnuts from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 23; Tot. = 26 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnuts from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 10; Tot. = 15 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnut kernels from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 33.5; Tot. = 36.9 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts in shell from Egypt in Italy

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 11; Tot. = 13 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from Paraguay in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 2.7 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 16.93; Tot. = 19.09 µg/kg – ppb) in roasted and salted pistachios in shell from Turkey in Germany

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 2.2 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 18; Tot. = 60 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 4.9; Tot. = 5.6 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnuts from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 7.6 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnuts from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 36; Tot. = 40 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnuts from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 5.7; Tot. = 8.8 µg/kg – ppb) in organic muesli from Belgium in Belgium

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 46.87; Tot. = 56.11 µg/kg – ppb) in pistachio nuts without shell from Iran, via Turkey in Italy

RASFF Alerts – Ochratoxin A – Green Coffee

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RASFF – ochratoxin A (>15 µg/kg – ppb) in green coffee from Vietnam in Spain

RASFF – ochratoxin A (13.81 µg/kg – ppb) in green coffee from Vietnam in Spain

RASFF Alerts – Aflatoxin – Groundnuts – Hazlenut Kernels – Nutmegs – Pistachios – Ground Ginger – Almonds

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RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 23.1; Tot. = 25.6 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts with shell from Egypt in Germany

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 19.2; Tot. = 28.8 µg/kg – ppb) in hazelnut kernels from Georgia in Bulgaria

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 5.6 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 10; Tot. = 11 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 2.59 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 4.4; Tot. = 5.1 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnut kernels from Argentina in Italy

RASFF – aflatoxins (Tot. = 16.4 µg/kg – ppb) in nutmegs from Indonesia in Germany

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 17.75 µg/kg – ppb) in pistachios from the United States, processed in Turkey in Italy

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 23; Tot. = 34 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnut paste from Senegal in France

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 47; Tot. = 81 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnut powder from Senegal in France

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 17.19 µg/kg – ppb) in ground ginger from Germany in Germany

RASFF – aflatoxins (Tot. = 102 µg/kg – ppb) in roasted and salted pistachios from Turkey in the UK

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = >24; Tot. = >24 µg/kg – ppb) in shelled almonds from Australia, manufactured in Vietnam in Spain

RASFF Alert – Ochratoxin – Dried Grapes – Sultana – Sultana Raisins

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RASFF – ochratoxin A (19.3 µg/kg – ppb) in dried grapes from Turkey in France

RASFF – ochratoxin A (19.1 µg/kg – ppb) in dried grapes from Turkey in France

RASFF – ochratoxin A (20 µg/kg – ppb) in sultanas from Turkey in France

RASFF – ochratoxin A (22 µg/kg – ppb) in sultana raisins from Turkey in France

Kenya – Clovers and Mother Nature’s Peanut Butter Exceeds Aflatoxin Levels – KEBS

All Africa

Nairobi — Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) has withdrawn the permits of Triclover and Mother nature’s after their peanut butter products were found to exceeded aflatoxin levels.

In a statement, KEBS said factory inspections undertaken in 2018 revealed that Clovers Peanut Butter and Mother nature’s had aflatoxin levels above the acceptable levels of 15 parts per billion.

“In the last 7 months, KEBS has been undertaking market surveillance of peanut butter. 54 samples of peanut butter have been collected from various points of sale and manufacturers from 1st July, 2018 to date and tested,” said KEBS Acting Managing Director Nguyo Bernard.

 

Kenya – Kenya: Govt Warns Over Toxic Peanut Butter as ‘Nuteez’ Maker Refutes Claims

All Africa

The Government Chemist has confirmed the presence of aflatoxin, a poisonous substance, in peanut butter brand ‘Nuteez’, making it unfit for human consumption.

Government Chemist Francis Maina said that the peanut butter was found to be containing 24.08ppb aflatoxin, 14.08ppb more than the required limit.

“It is true that they had high levels of aflatoxin and therefore unfit for human consumption,” he said.

Jetlak Foods Limited has however refuted claims that its product has been declared unfit for human consumption.

The denial came after a viral letter, purportedly sent to the company by the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government, warned about the peanut butter.

But in a rebuttal, the company, in a statement pinned on its website, said it had not received such a letter from the government.