Category Archives: Aflatoxin

RASFF Alerts – Aflatoxins – Groundnuts

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RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 3.4; Tot. = 15 µg/item) in groundnuts in shell from China in Portugal

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 11.3; Tot. = 12.8 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnut kernels from Brazil in Greece

Research – Assessment of mycotoxins co‐occurrence in Italian dried figs and in dried figs‐based products

Wiley Online

Abstract

The possible contamination by aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), fusaric acid (FA), and beauvericin (BEA), was investigated in 55 samples of dried figs and dried figs‐based products purchased from the South Italy (Calabria) market. A total of 41 samples showed contamination by at least one of the mycotoxins investigated. Aflatoxin B1 was found in six samples (0.19 — 8.41 μg/kg) total aflatoxins were found in 13 samples (0.5–17.12 μg/kg), OTA was found in 21 samples (<LOQ—158.58 μg/kg), FB1 was found in eight samples (153.81–5,412.96 μg/kg), BEA was found in 12 samples (<LOQ—5,708.49 μg/kg), and FA was found in 28 samples (<LOQ—74,520.20 μg/kg). The analyzed samples were contaminated with one (41.8%), two (7.3%), three (5.5%), four (10.9%), and five (5.5%) mycotoxins. To the best of our knowledge, the incidence of contamination by FA and BEA has been shown for the first time in dried figs.

Practical applications

The present work was focused on mycotoxin mixtures contamination levels of dried figs and dried figs‐based products. It is known that the co‐occurrence of mycotoxins leads to additive or synergistic effects. For some analyzed samples the AFB1, aflatoxins, and ochratoxin A (OTA) levels exceed the European Union countries legal limit. In addition, the simultaneous presence of FB1, FA, and BEA can be a potential threat to the health of consumers. Although different studies examined AFs, OTA, and Fusarium toxins as single mycotoxins in dried figs, to our knowledge, the co‐occurrence of AFs, OTA, FB1, FA, and BEA in dried figs and in dried figs‐based products samples has not been reported previously. Therefore, to prevent mycotoxins contamination, the employment of good practices in all the processing steps is necessary. Furthermore, the quality control of the ingredients used in figs preparations (spices, other dried fruits, cocoa, etc.), usually not adequately, is essential. Finally, it is of importance to establish more stringent rules to ensure food safety, even if no legal limit was still set for Fusarium toxins in dried fruit.

RASFF Alerts – Aflatoxin – Raw Red Rice – Hazlenut Kernels – Groundnut Kernels – Dried Figs

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RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 6.1 µg/kg – ppb) in raw red rice from India, via Germany in Siwtzerland

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 20; Tot. = 21 µg/kg – ppb) in hazelnut kernels from Azerbaijan in Germany

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 5 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnut kernels from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 5.3 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnut kernels from China in the UK

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 8.7; Tot. = 15 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnut kernels from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 42.21; Tot. = 62.66 µg/kg – ppb) in dried figs from Turkey in Germany

RASFF Alerts – Aflatoxin – Shelled Almonds – Apricot Kernels – Hazelnuts – Groundnuts – Figs- Dried Figs – Pistachios

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RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 11.43; Tot. = 13.48 µg/kg – ppb) in shelled almonds from the United States in Italy

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 27; Tot. = 31 µg/kg – ppb) in apricot kernels from Turkey in the Netherlands

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 76; Tot. = 81 µg/kg – ppb) in hazelnuts from Turkey, with raw material from the Netherlands, packaged in Slovenia in Slovenia

RASFF– aflatoxins (B1 = 30; Tot. = 33,2 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnut kernels from the United States in Spain

RASFF -aflatoxins (B1 = 13.7 µg/kg – ppb) in figs from Turkey in Denmark

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 9.4 µg/kg – ppb) in pistachio kernels from Turkey in Greece

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 63; Tot. = 73 µg/kg – ppb) in dried figs from Turkey in France

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 19.8; Tot. = 30 µg/kg – ppb) in dried figs from Turkey in France

RASFF Alerts – Aflatoxin – Groundnuts – Pistachios – Walnuts – Watermelon Seeds –

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RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 11; Tot. = 13 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 7.7; Tot. = 9.0 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from the United States in Spain

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 44.8; Tot. = 48.2 µg/kg – ppb) in pistachios from Turkey in Greece

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 56; Tot. = 63) in walnuts in shell from Ukraine in Portugal

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 12.7; Tot. = 13.9 µg/kg – ppb) in roasted and salted watermelon seeds (egusi) – from Turkey in Germany

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 7.54; Tot. = 8.09 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts in shell from the United States in Poland

 

Research – Aflatoxin M1 occurrence in fluid milk commercialised in Monterrey, Mexico

Wiley Online

Abstract

The occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples commercialized in the Metropolitan area of Monterrey (Mexico) was evaluated by employing the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. For this, 84‐fluid milk samples, with diverse origin (80% national production, 20% imported milk) and heat treatments (26% pasteurized and 74% Ultra High Temperature (UHT)‐treated) were collected in different sales points. In all the evaluated samples, the AFM1 was detected, with values oscillating from 0.1 to 1.27 μg/L. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Mexican standards, concerning a maximum limit of 0.5 μg/L, 39% of the analyzed samples were out of the standard limit, with different results depending on the milk origin (46% and 18% for national and imported milks, respectively) and heat treatment applied (45% and 23% for UHT and pasteurized samples, respectively). Based on these results, it is necessary a higher effort to control AFM1 levels in milk consumed in Mexico.

Practical applications

The practical application of this document is to serve as a first approach to know the presence of aflatoxins in milk in northern Mexico, both in domestic and imported products, and under different heat treatments applied and from this, take different measures by authorities and producers with a view to reducing their presence in milk and other dairy products.

RASFF Alerts – Aflatoxin – Brazil Nuts – Groundnuts – Almond Meal – Peanuts – Organic Chia Seeds – Hazlenuts – Nuts in Honey

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RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 6.48; Tot. = 12.99 µg/kg – ppb) in unshelled Brazil nuts from Bolivia in Italy

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 16; Tot. = 31 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 16; Tot. = 21 µg/kg – ppb) in almond meal from Australia, via Vietnam in the Netherlands

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 26; Tot. = 31 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnuts kernels from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 15; Tot. = 20 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnut kernels from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 120; Tot. = 140 µg/kg – ppb) in peanuts from China in the Netherlands

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 70.4; Tot. = 79.3 µg/kg – ppb) in organic chia seeds (Salvia columbariae) from Austria in Germany

RASFF-aflatoxins (Tot. = 13.4 µg/kg – ppb) in hazelnuts from Georgia in Bulgaria

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 12.7; Tot. = 17.7 µg/kg – ppb) in nuts in honey from Germany in Switzerland