Category Archives: Zearalenone

Composition-Based Risk Estimation of Mycotoxins in Dry Dog Foods

MDPI

Abstract

The risk of mycotoxins co-occurrence in extrusion-produced dry foods increases due to their composition based on various grains and vegetables. This study aimed to validate a risk estimation for the association between ingredients and the ELISA-detected levels of DON, FUM, ZEA, AFs, T2, and OTA in 34 dry dog food products. The main ingredients were corn, beet, and oil of different origins (of equal frequency, 79.41%), rice (67.6%), and wheat (50%). DON and FUM had the strongest positive correlation (0.635, = 0.001). The presence of corn in the sample composition increased the median DON and ZEA levels, respectively, by 99.45 μg/kg and 65.64 μg/kg, p = 0.011. In addition to DON and ZEA levels, integral corn presence increased the FUM median levels by 886.61 μg/kg, = 0.005. For corn gluten flour-containing samples, DON, FUM, and ZEA median differences still existed, and OTA levels also differed by 1.99 μg/kg, < 0.001. Corn gluten flour presence was strongly associated with DON levels >403.06 μg/kg (OR = 38.4, RR = 9.90, = 0.002), FUM levels >1097.56 μg/kg (OR = 5.56, RR = 1.45, = 0.048), ZEA levels >136.88 μg/kg (OR = 23.00, RR = 3.09, = 0.002), and OTA levels >3.93 μg/kg (OR = 24.00, RR = 3.09, = 0.002). Our results suggest that some ingredients or combinations should be avoided due to their risk of increasing mycotoxin levels.

Research – Evaluation of the dietary exposure of the Catalan population to mycotoxins of the genus Fusarium

ACSA

Within the framework of total diet studies, the Catalan Food Safety Agency (ACSA) publishes a second study on the evaluation of mycotoxins: “Evaluation of the dietary exposure of the Catalan population to mycotoxins of the genus Fusarium”.

In 2014, a first study was published in which the presence of the main mycotoxins in food intended for human consumption in the Catalan market was determined, and the intake of food linked to this contamination to estimate the food exposure of the population residing in Catalonia, and evaluate the risk to health (ACSA, 2014). Considering the results obtained, the ACSA considered it necessary to carry out this second, more specific study on mycotoxins, evaluating those that were found most frequently in the foods of the Catalan market, the mycotoxins of the genus Fusarium, and also taking into account the most exposed population groups.

The present study shows that the mycotoxins detected with greater frequency were DON and ENNB followed, with a much lower frequency, by mycotoxin T-2 and mycotoxins FB1 and DON-3G. The rest of mycotoxins analyzed (3-ADON, 15-ADON, NIV, FUS-X, zearalenone, HT-2, FB2 and FB3) will always present levels below the detection limit.

All the age groups evaluated have an exposure to DON and ENNB lower than the respective safety values. The average exposure of the adult population and children in Catalonia to the mycotoxin DON presents values ​​between 7.5% and 10.1% of the safety value. The average exposure of the population to ENNB presents values ​​​​that are two orders of magnitude lower than the extrapolated safety values.

Total diet studies make it possible to better understand the reality linked to the main chemical pollutants that reach the Catalan market, and in this way specific decisions can be made to correct possible risk situations for the health of consumers.

Research – From Aflatoxin to Zearalenone: Mycotoxins You Should Know – Deoxynivalenol (DON)

Agfax

Mycotoxins are substances produced by fungi that infect grain crops like maize and small grains and cause ear and kernel rots. Exposure to mycotoxins can lead to chronic or acute toxicity in humans and animals. In addition, mycotoxins can lead to market losses, discounts, rejection of grain lots at elevators, and a reduction in livestock efficiency and productivity.

The most economically important mycotoxins include aflatoxins (AF), deoxynivalenol (DON, also known as vomitoxin), fumonisins (FUM), zearalenone (ZEA), ochratoxin A (OTA), T2, HT-2, ergot alkaloids, and patulin (PAT). The fungal species that produce mycotoxins have worldwide distribution; therefore, mycotoxin contamination occurs everywhere grain crops are grown. Accordingly, mycotoxins have been detected in feed, silage, food, and beverages derived from cereal grains and animal products exposed to contaminated feed.

Research – The underestimated risk of mycotoxins in dairy cows

All About Feed

It is a myth that rumen microbial activity allows dairy cows to handle mycotoxin toxicity completely. A closer look at rumen degradation capability shows that this is not the case. Therefore, a mitigation strategy should be holistic, practical and beyond binding.

Risk, impact, and diagnostics

A complex and diverse Total Mixed Ration (TMR) poses multiple mycotoxin toxicity challenges. Although rumen microbes can reduce the toxicity of some mycotoxins, not all mycotoxins are equally degraded in the rumen. In high-yielding dairy cows high-starch diets can compromise the detoxification capacity of rumen microbes. For some mycotoxins, such as zearalenone (ZEN), rumen degradation may increase the toxicity. Furthermore, extended periods of exposure to low levels of multiple mycotoxins may lead to chronic toxicity, an increasing issue that is notoriously difficult to diagnose at an early stage.

Mycotoxins can threaten dairy cows’ health, rumen function, feed intake, milk yield, milk quality, lameness, and reproductive abilities. Many “mouldy silage syndrome” cases in the field have shown incidences of increased somatic cell counts, undigested faecal feed particles, laminitis, mastitis and ruminitis cases. Cases of reproductive challenges and vaccination failures have been reported with multiple mycotoxins in TMR.

Read more at the link above

Germany – REWE organic rice cakes dark – Mycotoxin – Zearalenone

LMW

Alert type: Food
Date of first publication: 10/20/2022
Product name:

REWE organic rice cakes dark 100g Best before date: 18.06.2023, 21.06.2023, 22.06.2023 EAN 4337256250023

Product images:

marktaushang_rewe_bio_reiswaffeln_zartbitter.jpg

REWE Group

Manufacturer (distributor):

Continental Bakeries Deutschland GmbH Gronau/Westf

Reason for warning:

possible contamination with the mycotoxin zearalenone

Packaging Unit: 100 g
Durability: 06/18/2023, 06/21/2023, 06/22/2023
Further information:

Reference is made to the attached customer information.

Click to access marktaushang_rewe_bio_reiswaffeln_zartbitter.pdf

Belgium – 4-grain pancakes (100g) from the Carrefour BIO brand sold in the GROCERY department

AFSCA

Recall from Carrefour
Product: 4-grain pancakes (100g) from the Carrefour BIO brand sold in the GROCERY department.
Problem: excessive Mycotoxin content (aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone).


Brussels, 18-10-2022 – Following an inspection and in order to guarantee consumer safety, the company CONTINENTAL BAKERIES HAUST is asking to withdraw from the market the “Galettes 4 cereals” (100 g) of the Carrefour Bio brand sold on the shelves. GROCERY of certain Carrefour stores in Belgium. This product is also being recalled from consumers.

Product Description :

Product: 4-grain pancakes
Brand: Carrefour BIO
EAN code: 3560070443291 Expiry
dates (BDD): 06/04/2023 and 06/03/2023
Batch numbers: H22154J and H22153J

All products have been withdrawn from sale. Some of these products were, however, marketed on the Belgian market before the withdrawal measure. It is therefore recommended that people who hold the product described above do not consume it and destroy it or bring it back to the point of sale where they will be reimbursed.

For any additional information , you can contact the Carrefour Belgium consumer service by dialing the free number 0800.9.10.11, from 8:30 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Monday to Saturday.

CONTINENTAL BAKERIES HAUST apologizes to Carrefour customers for the inconvenience caused.

RASFF Alerts – Mycotoxin – Zearalenone

RASFF

Zearalenone in organic rice crackers from Belgium in France

Research – Zearalenone and Its Masked Forms in Cereals and Cereal-Derived Products: A Review of the Characteristics, Incidence, and Fate in Food Processing

MDPI

Zearalenone (ZEA) is known as a Fusarium-produced mycotoxin, representing a risk to cereal food safety with repercussions for economies and worldwide trade. Recent studies have reported the co-occurrence of ZEA and masked ZEA in a variety of cereals and cereal-based products, which may exert adverse effects on public health due to additive/synergistic interactions. However, the co-contamination of ZEA and masked ZEA has received little attention. In order to minimize the threats of co-contamination by ZEA and masked ZEA, it is necessary to recognize the occurrence and formation of ZEA and masked ZEA. This review focuses on the characteristics, incidence, and detection of ZEA and its masked forms. Additionally, the fate of ZEA and masked ZEA during the processing of bread, cake, biscuits, pasta, and beer, as well as the ZEA limit, are discussed. The incidence of masked ZEA is lower than that of ZEA, and the mean level of masked ZEA varies greatly between cereal samples. Published data showed a considerable degree of heterogeneity in the destiny of ZEA during cereal-based food processing, mostly as a result of the varying contamination levels and complicated food processing methods. Knowledge of the fate of ZEA and masked ZEA throughout cereal-based food processing may reduce the likelihood of severe detrimental market and trade ramifications. The revision of legislative limits of masked ZEA may become a challenge in the future. View Full-Text

Research – The Investigation of Mycotoxins and Enterobacteriaceae of Cereal-Based Baby Foods Marketed in Turkey

MDPI

In this study, a total of 85 cereal-based baby foods with or without milk (four different brands; A, B, C, and D) collected from Ankara local markets, Turkey were analyzed for mycotoxins, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), and Enterobacteriaceae contamination. Baby foods were analyzed for 12 toxicological important mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2; fumonisin B1 and B2; ochratoxin A; sterigmatocystin (STE); deoxynivalenol (DON); zearalenone (ZON); and T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin by LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin method. In addition to these mycotoxins, the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was investigated in baby foods containing milk. The classical culture method was used for microbiological analysis. Consequently, at least one mycotoxin was detected in 69.41% of the total samples. The most frequently detected mycotoxins were STE (34.12%) and HT-2 (34.12%). However, AFM1 was not detected in any of the baby foods containing milk. Also, TAMB and Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 30.59% and 10.59% of samples, respectively. As a result, it was determined that the mycotoxin levels in the analyzed samples were in accordance with the mycotoxin levels specified in the Turkish Food Codex.

Research – Ochratoxin A and zearalenone in poultry feed samples from South China

Wiley Online

Data regarding ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) contamination in feed in South China are limited. Here, we evaluated OTA and ZEA contamination in 514 poultry feed samples collected from South China. We validated a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method and the mycotoxins were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. OTA and ZEA were detected in 2.92% and 100% of the feed samples, respectively. Furthermore, 0%, 0.68%, and 7.0% of Hainan, Guangdong, and Guangxi feed samples were contaminated with OTA, at mean concentrations of 0.00, 1.14, and 0.88 μg/kg, respectively. All samples were contaminated with ZEA, and the mean concentrations were 2094.1, 14.3, and 8.73 μg/kg in the samples from Hainan, Guangdong, and Guangxi, respectively. The findings of this study indicate the strong need for intense monitoring of mycotoxin, especially ZEA, contamination in feed.