Category Archives: T-2

Research – The Investigation of Mycotoxins and Enterobacteriaceae of Cereal-Based Baby Foods Marketed in Turkey


In this study, a total of 85 cereal-based baby foods with or without milk (four different brands; A, B, C, and D) collected from Ankara local markets, Turkey were analyzed for mycotoxins, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), and Enterobacteriaceae contamination. Baby foods were analyzed for 12 toxicological important mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2; fumonisin B1 and B2; ochratoxin A; sterigmatocystin (STE); deoxynivalenol (DON); zearalenone (ZON); and T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin by LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin method. In addition to these mycotoxins, the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was investigated in baby foods containing milk. The classical culture method was used for microbiological analysis. Consequently, at least one mycotoxin was detected in 69.41% of the total samples. The most frequently detected mycotoxins were STE (34.12%) and HT-2 (34.12%). However, AFM1 was not detected in any of the baby foods containing milk. Also, TAMB and Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 30.59% and 10.59% of samples, respectively. As a result, it was determined that the mycotoxin levels in the analyzed samples were in accordance with the mycotoxin levels specified in the Turkish Food Codex.

RASFF Alert – Mycotoxin T-2/HT-2 – Wheat Flour


RASFF – T-2 toxin (106.7 µg/kg – ppb) and HT-2 toxin (346 µg/kg – ppb) in wheat flour from Belgium in Belgium


T-2 toxin (T2) and HT-2 (HT2) toxin are trichothecenes, which form part of the group of Fusarium mycotoxins. Food and feed samples used to estimate human dietary and animal exposure were reported either as the individual results for T2 and/or, HT2, and/or as the sum of the two. The highest concentrations were reported in oats and oat-containing commodities. Very high levels were reported in a small number of data on specific plant- and herb-based dietary supplements. In humans, the mean chronic dietary exposure to the sum of T2 and HT2 was highest in‘Toddlers’and‘Infants’, with maximum upper bound (UB) estimates of 64.8 and 62.9 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day, respectively.The 95th percentile dietary exposure was highest in‘Infants’with a maximum UB estimate of 146 ng/kgbw per day. UB estimations were on average four fold higher than lower bound (LB) estimations. Average acute exposure ranged from a minimum of 13.4 ng/kg bw per day, estimated in‘Elderly’,up to a maximum of 64.7 ng/kg bw per day estimated in‘Toddlers’. The highest 95th percentile acute dietary exposure was estimated for a dietary survey within the age class‘Infants’(170 ng/kg bw per day).Overall, among processed foods the main contributors were cereal flakes,fine bakery wares and, for acute exposure, also bread and rolls. In the elderly and very elderly, dietary supplements made an important contribution. Exposure to the sum of T2 and HT2 in farm and companion animals varied according to the animal species. Exposures considering mean concentration scenarios varied between 0.03–0.08 (LB–UB)lg/kg bw per day in beef cattle and 1.13–1.47lg/kg bw per day in milking goats. Forhigh concentration scenarios, exposures varied between 0.12–0.16lg/kg bw per day and 2.37–2.58lg/kg bw per day in the same species. In the absence of data, potential modified form were not included.

©2017 European Food Safety Authority.EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority