Category Archives: Toxin

RASFF Alerts – Aflatoxin – Peanuts – Almond Kernels – Almonds

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RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 13,3; Tot. = 14,7 µg/kg – ppb) in peanuts from China in Spain

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 23.9; Tot. = 26.2 µg/kg – ppb) in peanuts in shell from Egypt in Germany

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 15.7; Tot. = 24 µg/kg – ppb) in almond kernels from Australia, via Vietnam in Spain

RASFF-aflatoxins (Tot. = 24 µg/kg – ppb) in almond kernel from Australia, manufactured in Vietnam in Spain

RASFF -aflatoxins (B1 = >24; Tot. = >24 µg/kg – ppb) in almond kernels from Australia, manufactured in Vietnam in Spain

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = >24; Tot. = >24 µg/kg – ppb) in almond kernels from Australia, manufactured in Vietnam in Spain

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 22.8 µg/kg – ppb) in almonds from Australia, manufactured in Vietnam in Spain

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 22.7; Tot. = >24 µg/kg – ppb) in almonds from Australia, manufactured in Vietnam in Spain

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 17.2; Tot. = 21.7 µg/kg – ppb) in almonds from Australia, manufactured in Vietnam in Spain

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 24; Tot. = 24 µg/kg – ppb) in almonds from Vietnam in Spain

RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = >24; Tot. = >24 µg/kg – ppb) in almonds from Vietnam in Spain

 

RASFF Alert – Animal Feed – Rye Ergot – Mycotoxin – Rye

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RASFF-rye ergot (Claviceps purpurea) (1115 mg/kg – ppm) in rye from Germany in Belgium

New Zealand – Shellfish biotoxin alert – between Granville Point and Cape Karikari

MPI

Map highlighting in red the areas affected.

The Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) today issued a public health warning advising the public not to collect or consume shellfish harvested from the Northland area between Granville Point and Cape Karikari (Whakapouaka). This warning includes Houhora and Rangaunu Harbours.

Routine tests on shellfish samples taken from this region have shown levels of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins above the safe limit of 0.8 mg/kg set by MPI. Anyone eating shellfish from this area is potentially at risk of illness.

Mussels, oysters, tuatua, pipi, toheroa, cockles, scallops, catseyes, kina (sea urchin) and all other bivalve shellfish should not be eaten.

Note: cooking shellfish does not remove the toxin.

Pāua, crab and crayfish may still be eaten if the gut has been completely removed prior to cooking, as toxins accumulate in the gut. If the gut is not removed its contents could contaminate the meat during the cooking process.

New Zealand -Shellfish biotoxin alert – Northland East Coast

MPI

Map highlighting in red the areas affected.

The Ministry for Primary Industries today extended the public health warning against collecting shellfish in the Northland east coast region. The affected area now extends from North Cape (Outo) south to Cape Karikari (Whakapouaka). The warning includes Parengarenga, Houhoura and Rangaunu Harbours.

This warning has been extended due to a reported illness from someone consuming shellfish collected from Rarawa Beach.

MPI is undertaking sampling and testing of shellfish from this region. Test results have shown levels of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins above the safe limit of 0.8 mg/kg set by MPI.

Anyone eating shellfish from this area is potentially at risk of illness.

Mussels, oysters, tuatua, pipi, toheroa, cockles, scallops, catseyes, kina (sea urchin) and all other bivalve shellfish should not be eaten.

Note: cooking shellfish does not remove the toxin.

Pāua, crab and crayfish may still be eaten if the gut has been completely removed prior to cooking, as toxins accumulate in the gut. If the gut is not removed its contents could contaminate the meat during the cooking process.

 

Research – 2017 BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey Results

Biomin

The latest edition of the annual survey, covering 18757 agricultural commodity samples from 72 countries with over 73000 analyses, highlights the main dangers from the most important mycotoxins in primary feedstuffs and their potential risk to livestock animal production.

The survey results provide an insight on the incidence of aflatoxins (Afla), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), fumonisins (FUM) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in the primary components used for feed which include corn (maize), wheat, barley, rice, soybean meal, corn gluten meal, dried distillers grains (DDGS) and silage, among others.

Research -Enterotoxigenic structures of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from ice creams

Wiley Online Library

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the presence of Bacillus cereus in ice cream samples and to identify associated toxin genes by mPCR. 125 ice cream samples were used as material. A total of 38 samples were found to be positive for B. cereus. It was found that 31.9% of the isolates had three enterotoxic HBL complex encoding genes, 10.6% had two hbl genes and 6.3% contained one hbl gene. On the other hand, 15.9% of the isolates contained three NHE complex encoding genes, 31.9% had two nhe genes and 20.2% contained one nhe gene. Also 7.4% of isolates were found to contain both NHE and HBL complexes while ctyK1 was not detected from any isolate. The presence of B. cereus and their enterotoxigenic genes in ice creams may be a potential risk for public health.

Practical applications

The presence of the B.cereus in high numbers and the toxins in foods pose a potential risk in terms of health and food spoilage. In food poisoning cases, hbl, nhe, cytK, and the effect of emetic toxin are especially notable. The resistance of spores against pasteurization and psychrotolerant feature enable the explanation of the existence of B. cereus in ice‐cream.

Research – Assessment of mycotoxins co‐occurrence in Italian dried figs and in dried figs‐based products

Wiley Online

Abstract

The possible contamination by aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), fusaric acid (FA), and beauvericin (BEA), was investigated in 55 samples of dried figs and dried figs‐based products purchased from the South Italy (Calabria) market. A total of 41 samples showed contamination by at least one of the mycotoxins investigated. Aflatoxin B1 was found in six samples (0.19 — 8.41 μg/kg) total aflatoxins were found in 13 samples (0.5–17.12 μg/kg), OTA was found in 21 samples (<LOQ—158.58 μg/kg), FB1 was found in eight samples (153.81–5,412.96 μg/kg), BEA was found in 12 samples (<LOQ—5,708.49 μg/kg), and FA was found in 28 samples (<LOQ—74,520.20 μg/kg). The analyzed samples were contaminated with one (41.8%), two (7.3%), three (5.5%), four (10.9%), and five (5.5%) mycotoxins. To the best of our knowledge, the incidence of contamination by FA and BEA has been shown for the first time in dried figs.

Practical applications

The present work was focused on mycotoxin mixtures contamination levels of dried figs and dried figs‐based products. It is known that the co‐occurrence of mycotoxins leads to additive or synergistic effects. For some analyzed samples the AFB1, aflatoxins, and ochratoxin A (OTA) levels exceed the European Union countries legal limit. In addition, the simultaneous presence of FB1, FA, and BEA can be a potential threat to the health of consumers. Although different studies examined AFs, OTA, and Fusarium toxins as single mycotoxins in dried figs, to our knowledge, the co‐occurrence of AFs, OTA, FB1, FA, and BEA in dried figs and in dried figs‐based products samples has not been reported previously. Therefore, to prevent mycotoxins contamination, the employment of good practices in all the processing steps is necessary. Furthermore, the quality control of the ingredients used in figs preparations (spices, other dried fruits, cocoa, etc.), usually not adequately, is essential. Finally, it is of importance to establish more stringent rules to ensure food safety, even if no legal limit was still set for Fusarium toxins in dried fruit.