Category Archives: Toxin

RASFF Alert – Ochratoxin A – Ground Nutmeg

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RASFF – ochratoxin A (67.6 µg/kg – ppb) in ground nutmeg from Czech Republic, with raw material from Indonesia, via Poland in the Czech Republic

USA – Cargill Conducts Voluntary Recall of Select Southern States® Feed Due to High/Excessive/or Elevated Aflatoxin Levels

FDA

Company Announcement

Cargill’s animal nutrition business is conducting a voluntary recall of select Southern States® feed due to aflatoxin levels that exceed FDA’s action levels. The affected products, which were manufactured and sold in the eastern United States, were removed from retail shelves throughout February, March, and April 2019. Livestock, horses, and poultry exposed to aflatoxin are at risk of exposure to several health hazards.

Aflatoxicosis has the same acute and chronic adverse effects and health consequences across all species and age classes (immature and mature). Immature animals are more sensitive to aflatoxins.  Acute aflatoxicosis may result in generalized hemorrhage, bloody diarrhea and death in 1-3 days.  In addition, aflatoxin toxicity can cause reduced feed intake, reduced weight gain, liver damage, jaundice, and eventually death.

No adverse health effects to animals have been reported to date. Nonetheless, Cargill is taking this voluntary step out of an abundance of caution. The affected products were manufactured at Cargill’s Cleveland, North Carolina, facility. Cargill first learned of the issue when it received a notification from the North Carolina Department of Agriculture of test results showing that a single lot of a specific Southern States product contained elevated levels of aflatoxin. Cargill has identified and corrected the root cause.

RASFF Alert – Ochratoxin A – Pistachio Nuts

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RASFF – ochratoxin A (93 µg/kg – ppb) in pistachio nuts from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – ochratoxin A (30 µg/kg – ppb) in pistachios in shell from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF Alerts – Aflatoxin – Groundnuts -Pistachios – Hazelnuts – Dried Figs – Almonds – Peanuts

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RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 5 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnuts from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 4.1 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 5 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnut kernels from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 7.3; Tot. = 8.3 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnuts from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 34; Tot. = 38 µg/kg – ppb) in pistachio kernels from Iran in France

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 38; Tot. = 51 µg/kg – ppb) in organic hazelnut kernels from Azerbaijan in Germany

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 29; Tot. = 32 µg/kg – ppb) in dried figs from Turkey in France

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 17.8 µg/kg – ppb) in shelled almonds from the United States in Spain

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 29; Tot. = 32 µg/kg – ppb) in shelled pistachios from Turkey in France

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 20; Tot. = 26 µg/kg – ppb) in roasted organic pistachios in shell from Turkey in France

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 8.9; Tot. = 35.2 µg/kg – ppb) in hazelnut kernels from Georgia in Bulgaria

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 55.4; Tot. = 70.4 µg/kg – ppb) in peanuts with shell from Egypt in Germany

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 10.9 µg/kg – ppb) in hazelnut kernels from Azerbaijan in Bulgaria

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 7; Tot. = 8.1 µg/kg – ppb) in peanut kernels from China in Bulgaria

RASFF Alert – Histamine – Albacore Tuna

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RASFF – histamine (1344 mg/kg – ppm) in frozen albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) from Vietnam, via Spain, processed in France in France

Research – Aflatoxins: a major threat to food safety

Technology Times

Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins found in a range of agricultural products, particularly cereals and nuts. Of especial concern are potentially high levels of these mycotoxins in maize and peanuts, which form part of staple diets in many parts of Asia.

The major fungus producing aflatoxins is Aspergillus flavus. However, another fungus,Aspergillus parasiticus and a few other minor species of Aspergillus can also produce these toxins.

Aflatoxins in crops:

All cereal crops can contain aflatoxins. Intensive cropping practices and decreased genetic diversity in cereal crops probably contribute to increased preharvest infections of commodities with fungi that produce aflatoxins.  Preharvest contamination of crops with aflatoxins occurs in the temperate and tropical regions.

The seeds in growth-stressed plants are the most susceptible to fungal invasion and aflatoxin production. Postharvest contamination occurs worldwide when conditions in the storage unit exist for the growth of Aflatoxigenic fungi. Aflatoxigenic fungi can grow in feedlot manure.

Insects spread the spores of aflatoxigenic fungi to plants and the fungi colonize areas of insect damage. The flower and silk in corn can be portals of entry for species of Aspergillus.

Insect damage, timing of irrigation or rain, relative humidity around the bolls, stage of maturity and variety of cotton can be factors in causing preharvest contamination of cottonseed with aflatoxins.

RASFF Alerts – Aflatoxin – Pistachios – Chilli Powder – Peanut and White Chocolate Spread – Peanut and Milk Chocolate Spread – Peanut with Caramel Spread – Dried Figs – Chopped Dates – Peanuts

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RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 10; Tot. = 58.9 µg/kg – ppb) in unshelled roasted pistachios from Turkey in Germany

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 75.5; Tot. = 78.3 µg/kg – ppb) in chilly powder from India in Greece

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 7.4; Tot. = 8.0 µg/kg – ppb) in peanut spread with white chocolate from Ukraine in Slovakia

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 9.8; Tot. = 11.3 µg/kg – ppb) in peanut spread with milk chocolate from Ukraine in Slovakia

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 7.2; Tot. = 36 µg/kg – ppb) in dried figs from Turkey in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 19.1; Tot. = 22.2) in peanut spread with caramel from Ukraine in Slovakia

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 5.8; Tot. = 5.8 µg/kg – ppb) in chopped dates from Pakistan, via Germany in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 10.1 µg/kg – ppb) in shelled pistachios from the United States in Italy

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 28.09; Tot. = 30.95 µg/kg – ppb) in pistachios from Kyrgyzstan, via Turkey in Italy

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 4.07; Tot. = 4.6 mg/kg – ppm) in peanuts with shell from Egypt in Italy