Category Archives: Toxin

France -SWORDFISH sold in the tide and self-service department of the Carrefour Noisy le Grand store between September 9 and 16, 2022 – Histamine

Gov france

Identification information of the recalled product

  • Product category Feed
  • Product subcategory Fishery and aquaculture products
  • Product brand name without brand (tide stand) and crossroads (self-service section).
  • Model names or references SWORDFISH sold in the tide and self-service department of the Carrefour Noisy le Grand store between September 9 and 16, 2022.
  • Identification of products
    GTIN Batch
    1111111111111111 sold in the seafood and self-service section of the Carrefour Noisy le Grand store between September 9 and 16, 2022.
  • Packaging retail sale fish and vacuum section self-service section
  • Marketing start/end date From 09/09/2022 to 16/09/2022
  • Storage temperature Product to be stored in the refrigerator
  • Health mark021/89/C
  • Further information Atlantic sailboat – Istiophorus albicans sold in the tide and self-service department of the Noisy le grand crossroads store between September 9 and 16, 2022.
  • Geographic area of ​​sale Noisy le Grand crossroads
  • Distributors Crossroads Noisy le Grand

Practical information regarding the recall

  • Reason for recall Suspicion of the presence of histamine.
  • Risks incurred by the consume Other biological contaminants
    Endogenous toxins: histamine (fish, cheese, alcoholic beverages, meats)

Norway -Crab shells in Agder: DSP below limit value


On 22 September, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority received a response to new samples of crabs in Agder. The random samples show that diarrhea toxin (DSP) in the crabs is now below the limit value, but there is no guarantee that all crabs in the area are below the danger limit. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority recommends following the mussel warning, as the crab likes to eat mussels.

Earlier in September, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority found high concentrations of the algae poison DSP (Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning) in crab from Agder, and thus warned people to eat the contents of crab shells.

DSP is one of the most common types of mussel poisoning in Norway. Once the crab has eaten mussels with DSP, the crab becomes poisonous to people who eat it. DSP causes diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. It takes from half an hour to a few hours from the time you eat until you get sick. The symptoms disappear by themselves after 2-3 days.

Since the beginning of July this year, high levels of the algal toxin DSP have been detected in mussels along the Sørland coast and in Agder.

France – Individual Tropézienne sold in pastry kiosk (traditional showcase)- E.coli – Staphylococcus aureus

Gov france

Identification information of the recalled product

  • Product category Feed
  • Product subcategory Others
  • Product brand name/
  • Model names or references Individual Tropézienne sold in newsstands (traditional showcase) Products sold from 29/08 TO 30/08
  • Identification of products
    see attached product list
  • Products Listposter_Auchan_Englos_20220919.pdfAttachment
  • Packaging Sold in pastry stand
  • Marketing start/end date From 08/29/2022 to 08/30/2022
  • Storage temperature Product to be stored in the refrigerator
  • Health mark/
  • Further information/
  • Geographic area of ​​sale Auchan English
  • Distributors Auchan English

Practical information regarding the recall

  • Reason for recall presence of coagulase-positive staphylococci and Escherichia coli
  • Risks incurred by the consumer Escherichia coli
    Staphylococcus aureus (causative agent of staphylococcal poisoning)

Research – Underreported Human Exposure to Mycotoxins: The Case of South Africa


South Africa (SA) is a leading exporter of maize in Africa. The commercial maize farming sector contributes to about 85% of the overall maize produced. More than 33% of South Africa’s population live in rural settlements, and their livelihoods depend entirely on subsistence farming. The subsistence farming system promotes fungal growth and mycotoxin production. This review aims to investigate the exposure levels of the rural population of South Africa to dietary mycotoxins contrary to several reports issued concerning the safety of South African maize. A systematic search was conducted using Google Scholar. Maize is a staple food in South Africa and consumption rates in rural and urban communities are different, for instance, intake may be 1–2 kg/person/day and 400 g/person/day, respectively. Commercial and subsistence maize farming techniques are different. There exist differences influencing the composition of mycotoxins in food commodities from both sectors. Depending on the levels of contamination, dietary exposure of South Africans to mycotoxins is evident in the high levels of fumonisins (FBs) that have been detected in SA home-grown maize. Other potential sources of exposure to mycotoxins, such as carryover effects from animal products and processed foods, were reviewed. The combined effects between FBs and aflatoxins (AFs) have been reported in humans/animals and should not be ignored, as sporadic breakouts of aflatoxicosis have been reported in South Africa. These reports are not a true representation of the entire country as reports from the subsistence-farming rural communities show high incidence of maize contaminated with both AFs and FBs. While commercial farmers and exporters have all the resources needed to perform laboratory analyses of maize products, the greater challenge in combatting mycotoxin exposure is encountered in rural communities with predominantly subsistence farming systems, where conventional food surveillance is lacking.

RASFF Alert – Shellfish Toxins – Oysters


Azaspiracid toxins above the regulatory limit in oysters from Ireland in France

New Zealand – Public health warning for shellfish extended for West Coast, North Island – PSP – Toxins


Map of the affected area in the Kawhia Harbour area, West Coast, North Island

New Zealand Food Safety today extended a public health warning against collecting shellfish in the Waikato region and have extended this south to the Taranaki region. The public health warning now applies to the coastline from Papanui Point (south of Raglan), south to Oakura Beach. Paralytic shellfish toxins have been detected at levels above the safe limit set by MPI.

Routine tests on shellfish samples taken from this region have shown levels of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins above the safe limit of 0.8 mg/kg set by New Zealand Food Safety. Anyone eating shellfish from this area is potentially at risk of illness.

Mussels, oysters, tuatua, pipi, toheroa, cockles, scallops, catseyes, kina (sea urchin), and all other bivalve shellfish should not be eaten.

Note, cooking shellfish does not remove the toxin.

Pāua, crab, and crayfish may still be eaten if the gut has been completely removed prior to cooking, as toxins accumulate in the gut. If the gut is not removed, its contents could contaminate the meat during the cooking process.

Symptoms typically appear between 10 minutes and 3 hours after ingestion and may include:

  • numbness and a tingling (prickly feeling) around the mouth, face, and extremities (hands and feet)
  • difficulty swallowing or breathing
  • dizziness
  • headache
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhoea
  • paralysis and respiratory failure and in severe cases, death.

If anyone becomes ill after eating shellfish from an area where a public health warning has been issued, phone Healthline for advice on 0800 61 11 16, or seek medical attention immediately. You are also advised to contact your nearest public health unit and keep any leftover shellfish in case it can be tested.

Monitoring of toxin levels will continue and any changes will be communicated accordingly. Commercially harvested shellfish – sold in shops and supermarkets, or exported – is subject to strict water and flesh monitoring programmes by MPI to ensure they are safe to eat.

RASFF Alert – Staphylococcal Toxin Outbreak – Canned Mushrooms


Staphylococcal toxin outbreak due to consumption of canned mushrooms (boletus edulis) from Spain

USA – What you need to know about E. coli O157:H7 and its complications during an Outbreak

Food Poison Journal

E. coli O157:H7 is one of thousands of serotypes of Escherichia coli.

E. coli O157:H7 was first recognized as a pathogen in 1982 during an investigation into an outbreak of haemorrhagic colitis associated with consumption of hamburgers from a fast-food chain restaurant. Retrospective examination of more than three thousand E. coli cultures obtained between 1973 and 1982 found only one isolate with serotype O157:H7, and that was a case in 1975. In the ten years that followed, there were approximately thirty outbreaks recorded in the United States. This number is likely misleading, however, because E. coli O157:H7 infections did not become a reportable disease in any state until 1987, when Washington became the first state to mandate its reporting to public health authorities. Consequently, an outbreak would not be detected if it was not large enough to prompt investigation.

E. coli O157:H7’s ability to induce injury in humans is a result of its ability to produce numerous virulence factors, most notably Shiga toxin (Stx), which is one of the most potent toxins known to man. Shiga toxin has multiple variants (e.g., Stx1, Stx2, Stx2c), and acts like the plant toxin ricin by inhibiting protein synthesis in endothelial and other cells. Endothelial cells line the interior surface of blood vessels and are known to be extremely sensitive to E. coli O157:H7, which is cytotoxigenic to these cells.

Spain – Alert for the presence of Staphylococcal toxin in mushrooms fried in olive oil (Boletus edulis)


fried mushrooms

New Zealand – Consumers urged not to eat illegal mussels


New Zealand Food Safety is urging consumers not to eat mussels being sold illegally at independent retailers or online.

The sale of imported mussels is carefully controlled to ensure they meet New Zealand’s food safety requirements. While mussels from Fiji may be brought into New Zealand for personal use, they cannot be sold.

Deputy director general Vincent Arbuckle says Fijian mussels have been removed from sale at some smaller retailers catering to Pacific Island communities, and online.

“As New Zealand Food Safety has not assessed Fiji’s growing, harvesting and processing controls for mussels we cannot be confident that the mussels don’t pose a food safety risk to consumers.”

The mussels are also known as: Nakai, Naakai, Nakaai, Kai, Batissa violacea and Fresh Water Mussels.

“It’s vital that mussels available to buy for members of the public are safe to eat. Knowing where the mussels you want to buy have come from can help reduce the risk of any potential health problems.

“Our message to people buying mussels is that if you are in any doubt, ask the retailer where the product has come from. If it is from Fiji, the mussels should not be for sale.”

Mussels are a higher risk food because of the way they feed, which increases the likelihood of contamination from bacteria, viruses, toxins and chemicals.