Category Archives: Ochratoxin

Research – Effect of mycotoxins on gut development

All About Feed

Mycotoxins are defined as secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to humans and animals. Worldwide, mycotoxins have a significant impact on human and animal health, economies and international trade, making feed contamination by mycotoxins an area of great concern. However, how do mycotoxins relate to the immune system? In literature, there are several reports of mycotoxins negatively effecting it.

Animal immune systems are modulated during early life due to stimulus given through diet, microbiota colonisation and gastrointestinal mucosa. To what degree, and how, can mycotoxin exposure during early life modulate the immune system of young animals?

RASFF Alerts – Aflatoxin – Ochratoxin A – Chilli Powder – Roasted Pistachios – Groundnut Kernels – Dried Figs

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RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 11.67; Tot. = 12.47 µg/kg – ppb) and ochratoxin A (63.1 µg/kg – ppb) in chili powder from Sri Lanka in Poland

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 13.8; Tot. = 14.8 µg/kg – ppb) in roasted pistachios in shell from Turkey in Germany

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 12.7; Tot. = 15.2 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnut kernels from the United States in the UK

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 15.2; Tot. = 28.9 µg/kg – ppb) in dried figs from Turkey in Slovenia

RASFF Alerts – Ochratoxin A – Raisins – Chilli Powder

Last two weeks catch up

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RASFF – ochratoxin A (31.7 µg/kg – ppb) in organic raisins from Lithuania in Denmark

RASFF – ochratoxin A (30 µg/kg – ppb) in raisins from Turkey in France

RASFF – ochratoxin A (23 µg/kg – ppb) in organic raisins from Turkey in France

RASFF – ochratoxin A (30.6 µg/kg – ppb) in organic chilli powder from the United Kingdom in the Netherlands

Summary of the last two weeks RASFF Alerts – Ochratoxin A – Raisins – Blanched Groundnut Kernels

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RASFF – ochratoxin A (20.2 µg/kg – ppb) in raisins from Turkey in the UK

RASFF – ochratoxin A (25 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnut kernels from India in the Netherlands

Research – Deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A in North Carolina grown organic wheat grains

Wiley Online

Abstract

The main safety issue of cereal grains is mycotoxin contamination. There is no published information about mycotoxin contamination of organic wheat in the United States. This study quantified the contents of deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA), two frequently occurring mycotoxins, in organic wheat samples collected from six counties in North Carolina by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By ELISA, all samples were DON and OTA positive, and the DON contents in the flour and bran samples were 0.7–2.35 ppm and 5–8 ppm, respectively, while OTA in the flour and bran samples were 9.54–25.55 ppb and 21.67–32.55 ppb, respectively. By HPLC, the DON detected in flour and bran were 0.24–0.47 ppm and 0.35–0.83 ppm, respectively; all flour samples were OTA negative, but 5 out of 6 bran samples were OTA positive (0.48–1.28 ppb). More studies with larger sample number are needed to obtain representative results.

Practical applications

This study provides preliminary results about the DON and OTA in organic wheat grains. The results indicate that the organic wheat produced in North Carolina during 2018 season were contaminated by DON and OTA to various degrees. However, the concentrations of these two mycotoxins determined by ELISA were significantly higher than those determined by HPLC. Therefore, to avoid overestimation or underestimation, it is important for researchers and regulatory agencies to conduct multi‐lab studies to develop and standardize analytical methods and detailed procedures for accurate DON and OTA quantification. Regardless of analytical methods, all bran samples showed higher DON and OTA concentrations than flour samples. Thus, when using organic wheat bran or whole wheat as food or feed ingredients, the level of bran inclusion should be controlled to protect consumers and animals from mycotoxicosis.

RASFF Alerts – Ochratoxin A – Raisins – Pistachios – Raisin Fruit Filling – Dried Grapes –

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RASFF – ochratoxin A (20.6 µg/kg – ppb) in raisins from Turkey in the UK

RASFF – ochratoxin A (71 µg/kg – ppb) in pistachios from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – ochratoxin A (18 µg/kg – ppb) in raisins from Turkey in France

RASFF – ochratoxin A (19.7 µg/kg – ppb) in raisin fruit filling from the Czech Republic in the Czech Republic

RASFF – ochratoxin A (17 µg/kg – ppb) in dried grapes from Turkey in France

RASFF – ochratoxin A (53 µg/kg – ppb) in pistachios from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF Alerts – Ochratoxin A – Raisins – Dried Grapes – Roasted Barley – Infusion of Aromatic Plants

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RASFF – ochratoxin A (30.04 µg/kg – ppb) in raisins from India in Poland

RASFF – ochratoxin A (30 µg/kg – ppb) in dried grapes from Turkey in France

RASFF – ochratoxin A (16 µg/kg – ppb) in roasted barley malt flour from the United Kingdom in France

RASFF – ochratoxin A (478.1 mg/kg – ppm) in infusion of aromatic plants from India in Italy