Category Archives: Fumomisins

Composition-Based Risk Estimation of Mycotoxins in Dry Dog Foods

MDPI

Abstract

The risk of mycotoxins co-occurrence in extrusion-produced dry foods increases due to their composition based on various grains and vegetables. This study aimed to validate a risk estimation for the association between ingredients and the ELISA-detected levels of DON, FUM, ZEA, AFs, T2, and OTA in 34 dry dog food products. The main ingredients were corn, beet, and oil of different origins (of equal frequency, 79.41%), rice (67.6%), and wheat (50%). DON and FUM had the strongest positive correlation (0.635, = 0.001). The presence of corn in the sample composition increased the median DON and ZEA levels, respectively, by 99.45 μg/kg and 65.64 μg/kg, p = 0.011. In addition to DON and ZEA levels, integral corn presence increased the FUM median levels by 886.61 μg/kg, = 0.005. For corn gluten flour-containing samples, DON, FUM, and ZEA median differences still existed, and OTA levels also differed by 1.99 μg/kg, < 0.001. Corn gluten flour presence was strongly associated with DON levels >403.06 μg/kg (OR = 38.4, RR = 9.90, = 0.002), FUM levels >1097.56 μg/kg (OR = 5.56, RR = 1.45, = 0.048), ZEA levels >136.88 μg/kg (OR = 23.00, RR = 3.09, = 0.002), and OTA levels >3.93 μg/kg (OR = 24.00, RR = 3.09, = 0.002). Our results suggest that some ingredients or combinations should be avoided due to their risk of increasing mycotoxin levels.

Research – From Aflatoxin to Zearalenone: Mycotoxins You Should Know – Deoxynivalenol (DON)

Agfax

Mycotoxins are substances produced by fungi that infect grain crops like maize and small grains and cause ear and kernel rots. Exposure to mycotoxins can lead to chronic or acute toxicity in humans and animals. In addition, mycotoxins can lead to market losses, discounts, rejection of grain lots at elevators, and a reduction in livestock efficiency and productivity.

The most economically important mycotoxins include aflatoxins (AF), deoxynivalenol (DON, also known as vomitoxin), fumonisins (FUM), zearalenone (ZEA), ochratoxin A (OTA), T2, HT-2, ergot alkaloids, and patulin (PAT). The fungal species that produce mycotoxins have worldwide distribution; therefore, mycotoxin contamination occurs everywhere grain crops are grown. Accordingly, mycotoxins have been detected in feed, silage, food, and beverages derived from cereal grains and animal products exposed to contaminated feed.

RASFF Alert – Mycotoxins – Fumonisins – Popcorn

RASFF

Fumonisins in popcorn from Argentina from Poland

RASFF Alert – Mycotoxins – Fumonisins – Maize

RASFF

Fumonisins in maize from Italy in Switzerland

Luxembourg – UPDATE: RECALL: MATIAS BRAND YELLOW CORN FLOUR – Mycotoxins – Fumonsins

SAP

Exceeding the legal limit in fumonisins

Luxembourg food safety authorities are recalling the following product:

*Update

name Type 100 yellow corn flou
Mark matias
Unity 500g
Use-by date (DLC) April 2022
Lot 070621D2

Hazard description: Fumonisins

Fumonisins are toxins formed by molds of the genus Fusarium on maize under certain climatic conditions. Fumonisins are classified as “possibly carcinogenic” to humans.

Sold in Luxembourg by: Primavera,  Epicerie Fernandes*, Epicerie Petit Panier*, Butcher and Epicerie Le Coq*

A sale by other operators cannot be excluded.

Source of information: Official Control

Communicated by: Government Commission for Quality, Fraud and Food Safety .

Belgium – “Farinha de Milho Amarela” corn flour from the Matias brand – Mycotoxins – Fumonisin

AFSCA

FASFC recall
Product: “Farinha de Milho Amarela” corn flour from the Matias brand.
Problem: Exceeding the fumonisin standard.


The FASFC is today recalling consumers the corn flour “Farinha de Milho Amarela” (500g) of the Matias brand.

This recall follows a RASFF (Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed) concerning the exceeding of the fumonisin standard.

The AFSCA asks not to consume this product and to bring it back to the point of sale where it was purchased.

Product: “Farinha de Milho Amarela” corn flour
Brand: Matias
Batch number: 070621D2
Expiry date (BDD): 01/04/2022
Weight: 500g

This product was sold via various stores in Belgium including:

SPRL PORTUGAL MARKET CHAUSSÉE DE FOREST, 173 1060 SAINT GILLES
SPRL LUSOBEL RUE DE VERGNIES, 38 1050 BRUXELLES
SPRL A DESPENSA DE ATHUS 19, GRAND RUE 6791 ATHUS

For any additional information, you can contact the FASFC contact point for consumers: 0800/13.550 or pointdecontact@afsca.be .

Research – How do Time, Tannin and Moisture Content Influence on Toxicogenic Fungal Populations during the Storage of Sorghum Grains?

Journal of Food Protection

Cereal grains are usually ensiled to improve their nutritional value and are one of the main sources of feed for dairy cattle. However, during storage, grains can be contaminated with toxicogenic fungi. Sorghum is one of the most economically important cereals in the world. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of storage duration and tannin and moisture contents on toxicogenic fungal populations in sorghum grain storage. Samples were prepared with variety high in tannins (genotypes Morgan 108 and ACA 558, >5g/kg DM) and with variety low tannin content (genotypes Flash 10 and ACA 546, <1g/kg DM) were collected and manually compacted in experimental laboratory silos where they received different moisture content treatments, namely low (15-25%), medium (26-32%) and high (33-42%). Freshly harvest grains were analyzed at time 0 and storage grains were analyzed at different times (30, 90 and 180 days). Fungal isolation and identification were performed following conventional mycological methods. Penicillium citrinum (34%), Aspergillus flavus (60%) and Fusarium nygamai (68%) were the most abundant species. Rapid detection of aflatoxins and fumonisins in each sample was performed by ELISA according to the AOAC method, and the quantification of aflatoxin B 1 was performed by HPLC. Aflatoxins were detected in four samples with levels of 6.7-28.8 µg/kg and aflatoxin B 1 with a level of 2-14 µg/kg in pre- and post-storage grains . Fumonisins were only detected in two freshly harvested samples with levels of 500-900 µg/kg . In general, the storage time favored the increase of Penicillium population, instead the Aspergillus and Fusarium are reduced. Conversely the abundance of the three population was not affected by the moisture content. The results of this study show that fungal population must be analyzed at different times.

RASFF Alert – Mycotoxin – Fumonisins – Cornmeal

RASFF

Fumonisins in cornmeal from Peru in Spain