Category Archives: deoxynivalenol

Spain – Mycotoxin update on the Hazard Map


In the Hazard Map database, we have updated all the sheets corresponding to the mycotoxins of the chemical hazards block:

  • Aflatoxins
  • Ochratoxins
  • Zearalenone
  • Deoxynivalenol
  • Fumonisins
  • Trichothecenes T-2 and HT2
  • Patulin

Mycotoxins are products of fungal metabolism and their ingestion, inhalation or skin absorption can cause disease or death in animals and people. The most important mycotoxins are produced by molds of the genera Aspergillus , Penicillium and Fusarium .

Among the most common mycotoxins are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearanelone, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 and HT-2 toxins.

RASFF Alert – Mycotoxin – DON – Popcorn

European Food Alerts


deoxynivalenol (DON) (2174 µg/kg – ppb) in popcorn from Hungary, packaged in Poland in Poland

Ireland – Recall of a Batch of Makar Bakalie Popcorn Due to Elevated Deoxynivalenol (DON) – Mycotoxin


Thursday, 7 January 2021

Category 2: For Information
Alert Notification: 2021.02
Product: Makar Bakalie Popcorn ziarno kukurydzy do prazenia; pack size: 100g
Batch Code: 6447 2710; best before: 01/09/2021
Country Of Origin: Hungary


A batch of Makar Bakalie Popcorn is being recalled as it contains Deoxynivalenol (DON) in excess of the legal limit. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurring predominantly in cereal grains. Short-term (acute) exposure to high levels of DON has been reported to cause symptoms including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, headaches, dizziness and fever in humans. Evidence of adverse health effects in humans due to long-term (chronic) exposure to DON is lacking, however, adverse effects such as reduced body weight gain have been observed in animal studies. The levels of DON detected exceed the maximum legal limit, however, health concerns are not expected from consuming the implicated batch.

Makar Popcorn

India – FSSAI issues new manual for analysing aflatoxin in food

FNB News

The apex food regulator, FSSAI, has issued a revised manual for methods of analysis of mycotoxins including aflatoxin in food. FSSAI has stated that the manual shall be used by the laboratories with immediate effect and this manual shall supersede the earlier manual on mycotoxins.

According to the FSSAI all food samples suspected of being contaminated with mycotoxins must be handled with extreme care, as aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic substances.

The manual talks about personal safety precautions, precautions during analysis  and handling of glassware for aflatoxin analysis.

Currently, the regulatory limits for mycotoxins in food as defined by the FSSAI include 15 microgram per kg in cereals, and cereal products, pulses, nuts and nuts for further processing. For Aflatoxins  the limit is prescribed at 10 microgram  per kg for ready to eat products, and dried figs, while 30 microgram per kg for spices and for oilseeds for further processing, the limit is set at 15 microgram per kg.

Similarly, the limit of Aflatoxin M1 in milk is 0.5 microgram per kg, Ochratoxin A in wheat, barley and rye is at 20 microgram per kg, and for Patulin, the limit is 50mcrogram per kg in apple juice and apple juice ingredients in other beverages.

Further, the limit for Deoxynivalenol  in wheat is fixed at 1000ppm.

Mycotoxins—toxic secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi—are biological in origin. Only a few of the thousands of mycotoxins present significant food safety challenges to the farm-to-fork food continuum. The natural fungal flora associated with food safety is dominated by three genres: Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium.

Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites and aflatoxin-producing fungi can contaminate crops in the field, at harvest, and during storage. Some of the more common crops susceptible to contamination with aflatoxins are cereals (e.g. maize, rice and wheat). The husk of these cereals are often used as animal feed.

Deoxynivalenol (DON) Deoxynivalenol (DON) also known as vomitoxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium fungi (Fusarium molds). This plant pathogens can cause scab mainly in wheat and barley etc., and damages cereals the most widely by contamination in the field. The main commodities affected are cereals such as wheat, rice, barley, oats and maize etc.

Patulin is a mycotoxin that is produced by certain species of Penicillium, Apergillus, and Byssochylamys molds that may grow on a variety of foods including fruit, grains, and cheese  while Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a naturally occurring foodborne mycotoxin found in a wide variety of agricultural commodities worldwide, ranging from cereal grains to dried fruits to wine and coffee.

RASFF Alert – Mycotoxin -DON – Wheat

European Food Alerts


deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat from the Czech Republic in Germany

Research – Animal Health – Mycotoxin – Beauvericin a Fusarium Mycotoxin

All About Feed

Beauvericin is a Fusarium mycotoxin known for its antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties, but it also causes oxidative stress and cell death.

Although these biological activities are mainly interesting for drug development, chronic animal exposure to such a chemical via feed will certainly influence performance and health status. Even though this mycotoxin is still ‘emerging’, its presence in feed materials has been known for many years.

Beauvericin (BEA) is commonly found as a co-contaminant in grains where other Fusarium mycotoxins such as Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Zearalenone (ZEA) are present. From the feedstuffs we evaluate at Schothorst Feed Research (SFR), BEA is often detected in corn and soy hulls at levels varying from 10 to 500 µg/kg. However, much higher contamination levels have been reported by others. As was published by All About Feed in 2010, a study performed in South Korea showed that 27% of feed ingredients were then contaminated with BEA at levels up to 1.8 mg/kg (almost 4 times higher than our findings). These levels can be extremely high, reaching circa 500 mg/kg in corn as was reported by Logrieco and others in the 1990s. Although these are extreme levels and they only occur occasionally, the constant presence of this mycotoxin is feedstuffs should be of concern to nutritionists and veterinarians.

RASFF Alert – Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Zearalenone in Wheat

European Food Alerts


deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone in wheat from the Czech Republic in Germany

RASFF Alert – Deoxynivalenol (DON) Noodles


RASFF – deoxynivalenol (DON) (1178 µg/kg – ppb) in noodles from China in Switzerland

RASFF Alert – Deoxynivalenol – DON – Wheat Flour


RASFF – deoxynivalenol (DON) (1063.39 µg/kg – ppb) in wheat flour from Ukraine in Slovakia

Research – Mycotoxin Analysis: 90% of samples show presence of DON

All About Feed

Trouw Nutrition, a Nutreco company, recently release findings from the 2019 Global Mycotoxin Risk Analysis in a live webinar. The analysis includes more than 21,000 ingredient and finished feed samples collected from 38 countries across Europe, North America, South/Central America, Middle East/Africa and Asia.

90% of samples showed presence of DON

The analysis shows that of the global crop samples collected in 2019, more than 90% had a quantifiable presence (>100 ppb) of DON, with between 80 and 90% of samples showing FUMO, AFLAOTA and ZEA T-2 levels were lowest, at about 70%. (Figure 1). The 2019 mycotoxin risk analysis includes analysis for individual ingredients, complete feeds and silages including small grains (wheat and barley) which tested at as high as 88% for DON, to 59% for AFLA. Among byproducts, concentrations in DDGS were significantly higher than in maize, with levels approaching 5,000 ppb. Looking at protein meals, concentrations of mycotoxins were relatively low compared to cereal grains. However, soybean meal is used at about 25-30% of monogastric diets, and hence can contribute significantly to concentration of toxins in final feed. Sunflower meal showed the greatest concentration of FUMO while levels of DON, AFLA and ZEA were lower. Among silages, 100% of maize and grass silage samples showed mycotoxin contamination with concentrations that can cause toxicity in ruminant animals.