Category Archives: deoxynivalenol

Composition-Based Risk Estimation of Mycotoxins in Dry Dog Foods

MDPI

Abstract

The risk of mycotoxins co-occurrence in extrusion-produced dry foods increases due to their composition based on various grains and vegetables. This study aimed to validate a risk estimation for the association between ingredients and the ELISA-detected levels of DON, FUM, ZEA, AFs, T2, and OTA in 34 dry dog food products. The main ingredients were corn, beet, and oil of different origins (of equal frequency, 79.41%), rice (67.6%), and wheat (50%). DON and FUM had the strongest positive correlation (0.635, = 0.001). The presence of corn in the sample composition increased the median DON and ZEA levels, respectively, by 99.45 μg/kg and 65.64 μg/kg, p = 0.011. In addition to DON and ZEA levels, integral corn presence increased the FUM median levels by 886.61 μg/kg, = 0.005. For corn gluten flour-containing samples, DON, FUM, and ZEA median differences still existed, and OTA levels also differed by 1.99 μg/kg, < 0.001. Corn gluten flour presence was strongly associated with DON levels >403.06 μg/kg (OR = 38.4, RR = 9.90, = 0.002), FUM levels >1097.56 μg/kg (OR = 5.56, RR = 1.45, = 0.048), ZEA levels >136.88 μg/kg (OR = 23.00, RR = 3.09, = 0.002), and OTA levels >3.93 μg/kg (OR = 24.00, RR = 3.09, = 0.002). Our results suggest that some ingredients or combinations should be avoided due to their risk of increasing mycotoxin levels.

Research – Evaluation of the dietary exposure of the Catalan population to mycotoxins of the genus Fusarium

ACSA

Within the framework of total diet studies, the Catalan Food Safety Agency (ACSA) publishes a second study on the evaluation of mycotoxins: “Evaluation of the dietary exposure of the Catalan population to mycotoxins of the genus Fusarium”.

In 2014, a first study was published in which the presence of the main mycotoxins in food intended for human consumption in the Catalan market was determined, and the intake of food linked to this contamination to estimate the food exposure of the population residing in Catalonia, and evaluate the risk to health (ACSA, 2014). Considering the results obtained, the ACSA considered it necessary to carry out this second, more specific study on mycotoxins, evaluating those that were found most frequently in the foods of the Catalan market, the mycotoxins of the genus Fusarium, and also taking into account the most exposed population groups.

The present study shows that the mycotoxins detected with greater frequency were DON and ENNB followed, with a much lower frequency, by mycotoxin T-2 and mycotoxins FB1 and DON-3G. The rest of mycotoxins analyzed (3-ADON, 15-ADON, NIV, FUS-X, zearalenone, HT-2, FB2 and FB3) will always present levels below the detection limit.

All the age groups evaluated have an exposure to DON and ENNB lower than the respective safety values. The average exposure of the adult population and children in Catalonia to the mycotoxin DON presents values ​​between 7.5% and 10.1% of the safety value. The average exposure of the population to ENNB presents values ​​​​that are two orders of magnitude lower than the extrapolated safety values.

Total diet studies make it possible to better understand the reality linked to the main chemical pollutants that reach the Catalan market, and in this way specific decisions can be made to correct possible risk situations for the health of consumers.

Research – From Aflatoxin to Zearalenone: Mycotoxins You Should Know – Deoxynivalenol (DON)

Agfax

Mycotoxins are substances produced by fungi that infect grain crops like maize and small grains and cause ear and kernel rots. Exposure to mycotoxins can lead to chronic or acute toxicity in humans and animals. In addition, mycotoxins can lead to market losses, discounts, rejection of grain lots at elevators, and a reduction in livestock efficiency and productivity.

The most economically important mycotoxins include aflatoxins (AF), deoxynivalenol (DON, also known as vomitoxin), fumonisins (FUM), zearalenone (ZEA), ochratoxin A (OTA), T2, HT-2, ergot alkaloids, and patulin (PAT). The fungal species that produce mycotoxins have worldwide distribution; therefore, mycotoxin contamination occurs everywhere grain crops are grown. Accordingly, mycotoxins have been detected in feed, silage, food, and beverages derived from cereal grains and animal products exposed to contaminated feed.

Research – The Investigation of Mycotoxins and Enterobacteriaceae of Cereal-Based Baby Foods Marketed in Turkey

MDPI

In this study, a total of 85 cereal-based baby foods with or without milk (four different brands; A, B, C, and D) collected from Ankara local markets, Turkey were analyzed for mycotoxins, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), and Enterobacteriaceae contamination. Baby foods were analyzed for 12 toxicological important mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2; fumonisin B1 and B2; ochratoxin A; sterigmatocystin (STE); deoxynivalenol (DON); zearalenone (ZON); and T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin by LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin method. In addition to these mycotoxins, the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was investigated in baby foods containing milk. The classical culture method was used for microbiological analysis. Consequently, at least one mycotoxin was detected in 69.41% of the total samples. The most frequently detected mycotoxins were STE (34.12%) and HT-2 (34.12%). However, AFM1 was not detected in any of the baby foods containing milk. Also, TAMB and Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 30.59% and 10.59% of samples, respectively. As a result, it was determined that the mycotoxin levels in the analyzed samples were in accordance with the mycotoxin levels specified in the Turkish Food Codex.

RASFF Alert – Animal Feed – Mycotoxin – DON – Deoxynivalenol – Corn Grain

RASFF

Exceeding the level of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the product: “corn grain” from France in Poland

Norway – Analyzes of nutrients, heavy metals and mycotoxins in cereal products 2021

Mattilsynet

The Institute of Marine Research (HI) has, on behalf of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, performed analyzes of nutrients, heavy metals and mycotoxins in grain products. The purpose of the project “Analyzes of nutrients, heavy metals and mycotoxins in grain products” is to obtain nutrient values ​​for the Food Table and control the products for foreign substances.

What we investigated:
  • The analyzed products are; oatmeal, organic oatmeal, sifted wheat flour, spelled wheat flour, organic wheat flour, whole wheat flour, sifted rye flour, whole rye flour, finely ground barley flour and bran.
  • The producers: AXA, Kolonihagen, Møllerens and Regal.
  • A total of 45 aggregate samples. Each sample consisted of three different batches from each manufacturer.
Period: The analyzes were performed in the period November-December 2019 (sample 1), and in August-September 2020 (sample 2) and five grain products in February 2021 (sample 3).
What we were looking for: The project has provided analysis data for the content of nutrients and foreign substances in grain products from the grocery trade.

 The project has provided analytical values ​​for ash, protein, fat, fatty acids, sugars, starch, dietary fiber, β -carotene, thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (B6), folate, vitamin C , vitamin E, vitamin K1, vitamin K2, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, selenium, iodine, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, and the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone, T2 HT2 and enniatin for 40 grain products. The grain products in sample 3 (5 products) were only analyzed for fat, protein, ash, starch and dietary fiber.

What we found: The results show that the levels of the heavy metals in the cereal products analyzed are below the limit values ​​that apply to arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury and mycotoxins.

The results show a higher content of dietary fiber in Norwegian grain products than before. This can be explained by the use of an analysis method (AOAC 2009.1) that includes several dietary fiber compounds.

The Norwegian Food Safety Authority will inform affected companies about the analysis project.

Who performed the assignment? Institute of Marine Research

Research – Mycotoxins Affecting Animals, Foods, Humans, and Plants: Types, Occurrence, Toxicities, Action Mechanisms, Prevention, and Detoxification Strategies—A Revisit

MDPI

CDC Fusarium1

Mycotoxins are produced by fungi and are known to be toxic to humans and animals. Common mycotoxins include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, patulin, sterigmatocystin, citrinin, ergot alkaloids, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, trichothecenes, Alternaria toxins, tremorgenic mycotoxins, fusarins, 3-nitropropionic acid, cyclochlorotine, sporidesmin, etc. These mycotoxins can pose several health risks to both animals and humans, including death. As several mycotoxins simultaneously occur in nature, especially in foods and feeds, the detoxification and/or total removal of mycotoxins remains challenging. Moreover, given that the volume of scientific literature regarding mycotoxins is steadily on the rise, there is need for continuous synthesis of the body of knowledge. To supplement existing information, knowledge of mycotoxins affecting animals, foods, humans, and plants, with more focus on types, toxicity, and prevention measures, including strategies employed in detoxification and removal, were revisited in this work. Our synthesis revealed that mycotoxin decontamination, control, and detoxification strategies cut across pre-and post-harvest preventive measures. In particular, pre-harvest measures can include good agricultural practices, fertilization/irrigation, crop rotation, using resistant varieties of crops, avoiding insect damage, early harvesting, maintaining adequate humidity, and removing debris from the preceding harvests. On the other hand, post-harvest measures can include processing, chemical, biological, and physical measures. Additionally, chemical-based methods and other emerging strategies for mycotoxin detoxification can involve the usage of chitosan, ozone, nanoparticles, and plant extracts. View Full-Text

Spain – Mycotoxin update on the Hazard Map

ACSA

In the Hazard Map database, we have updated all the sheets corresponding to the mycotoxins of the chemical hazards block:

  • Aflatoxins
  • Ochratoxins
  • Zearalenone
  • Deoxynivalenol
  • Fumonisins
  • Trichothecenes T-2 and HT2
  • Patulin

Mycotoxins are products of fungal metabolism and their ingestion, inhalation or skin absorption can cause disease or death in animals and people. The most important mycotoxins are produced by molds of the genera Aspergillus , Penicillium and Fusarium .

Among the most common mycotoxins are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearanelone, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 and HT-2 toxins.

RASFF Alert – Mycotoxin – DON – Popcorn

European Food Alerts

RASFF

deoxynivalenol (DON) (2174 µg/kg – ppb) in popcorn from Hungary, packaged in Poland in Poland

Ireland – Recall of a Batch of Makar Bakalie Popcorn Due to Elevated Deoxynivalenol (DON) – Mycotoxin

FSAI

Thursday, 7 January 2021

Summary
Category 2: For Information
Alert Notification: 2021.02
Product: Makar Bakalie Popcorn ziarno kukurydzy do prazenia; pack size: 100g
Batch Code: 6447 2710; best before: 01/09/2021
Country Of Origin: Hungary

Message:

A batch of Makar Bakalie Popcorn is being recalled as it contains Deoxynivalenol (DON) in excess of the legal limit. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurring predominantly in cereal grains. Short-term (acute) exposure to high levels of DON has been reported to cause symptoms including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, headaches, dizziness and fever in humans. Evidence of adverse health effects in humans due to long-term (chronic) exposure to DON is lacking, however, adverse effects such as reduced body weight gain have been observed in animal studies. The levels of DON detected exceed the maximum legal limit, however, health concerns are not expected from consuming the implicated batch.

Makar Popcorn