Category Archives: Aspergillus

Iceland – Mold poison in Sportmix cat food -Mycotoxin -Aflatoxin

MAST

Matvælastofnun warns against  Sportmix original cat food cat food  from  Midwestern pet food  in 6.8 kg bags due to aflatoxin mold toxin. The company Pak ehf. has recalled the feed with the help of the Food Administration. The feed was taken from online sales at the end of December and buyers were contacted. 

The recall only applies to the following batches:

  • Product name: Sportmix original cat food
  • Weight: 6.8 kg (15 lbs)
  • Manufacturer: Midwestern pet foods
  • Batch number: All dates before or 07.09.22 / batch number 07092021L3 05
  • Country of manufacture: United States
  • Importer: Pak ehf., Strandgata 32, 220 Hafnarfjörður
  • Distribution:  https://www.litlagaeludyrabudin.is/netverslun/

Sportsmix cat food

Parties who own this feed are advised to return it to PAK ehf., Melabraut 19, 220 Hafnarfjörður or call 517 8119.

Aflatoxin is a poison produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus  which can grow on maize and other grains used in pet food. If the poison is high in the product, it can cause illness or even death.

Spain – Mycotoxin update on the Hazard Map

ACSA

In the Hazard Map database, we have updated all the sheets corresponding to the mycotoxins of the chemical hazards block:

  • Aflatoxins
  • Ochratoxins
  • Zearalenone
  • Deoxynivalenol
  • Fumonisins
  • Trichothecenes T-2 and HT2
  • Patulin

Mycotoxins are products of fungal metabolism and their ingestion, inhalation or skin absorption can cause disease or death in animals and people. The most important mycotoxins are produced by molds of the genera Aspergillus , Penicillium and Fusarium .

Among the most common mycotoxins are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearanelone, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 and HT-2 toxins.

Research – Influence of Light and Water Activity on Growth and Mycotoxin Formation of Selected Isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

MDPI

kswfoodworld

Image CDC

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the main causes of aflatoxin contamination in various foods, particularly grains, as they can thrive in environments with lower water activity and higher temperatures. The growth of Aspergillus and the formation of the mycotoxins aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid are strongly influenced by environmental stimuli and can be reduced by modulating parameters such as water activity, pH, temperature and light during the storage. This study has two objectives—on the one hand, to assess how global warming and an increase in exposure to sunlight affect growth and mycotoxin formation, and on the other hand, how the findings from these experiments can be used to reduce fungal growth and mycotoxin formation in stored foods. Using growth substrates with two different water activities (aw 0.95, aw 0.98), together with a light incubation device consisting of different chambers equipped with diodes emitting visible light of five different wavelengths (455 nm, 470 nm, 530 nm, 590 nm, 627 nm) plus white light, we analyzed the growth and mycotoxin formation of selected Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus isolates. It was shown that light with a wavelength of 455/470 nm alone, but especially in combination with a lower water activity of aw 0.95, leads to a significant reduction in growth and mycotoxin formation, which was accompanied by reduced transcriptional activity of the responsible mycotoxin biosynthetic genes. Therefore, these results can be used to significantly reduce the growth and the mycotoxin formation of the analyzed fungi during storage and to estimate the trend of fungal infestation by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in water activity- and light exposure-equivalent climate change scenarios. Mycotoxin-producing aspergilli can be effective and sustainably inhibited using a combination of short-wave light and lowered water activity in the substrate. A higher annual mean temperature accompanying climate change may lead to an increased spread of aflatoxin-producing fungi in areas that were previously too cold for them. On the other hand, there will be regions in the world where contamination with aflatoxin-producing fungi will be reduced due to increased drought and sun exposure.

Research -Efficient Reduction of Food Related Mould Spores on Surfaces by Hydrogen Peroxide Mist

MDPI

CDC Mould

The aim of the study was to evaluate the fungicidal effect of a H2O2 mist generating system for disinfection of spores of six food-related moulds (Alternaria alternataAspergillus flavusGeotrichum candidumMucor plumbeusPaecilomyces variotii, and Penicillium solitum) dried on stainless steel. Exposure to H2O2 mist for 2 or 4 h lead to >3 log reduction in mould spores in the majority of the tests. The presence of the soils 2% skim milk or 3% BSA did not significantly alter the fungicidal effect, while the presence of raw meat juice had an adverse fungicidal effect against Penicillium and Mucor in two out of three tests. Fungicidal suspension tests with liquid H2O2 confirmed the effectiveness of H2O2 on reducing the mould spores. Both the surface test and the suspension test indicated that P. variotii is more resistant to H2O2 compared to the other moulds tested. The study shows the efficiency of H2O2 mist on reducing food-related mould spores on surfaces. View Full-Text

Research – Aspergillus-Derived Mycotoxins in the Feed and Food Chain

Frontiers in Microbiology

kswfoodworld

Image CDC

Aspergillus-produced mycotoxins can enter the feed and food chain at many points in both pre-harvest and post-harvest. Although current climate changes seem to speed up the world-wide spread of mycotoxigenic fungi including the Aspergilli and also facilitate the production of these harmful secondary metabolites the factors governing these disadvantageous global processes are only partly understood or even have remained completely hidden until now. This Research Topic summarizes our knowledge on Aspergillus-derived mycotoxins especially focusing on three major areas of on-going research: (i) toxicological, medical, veterinary aspects, prevalence, detection, risk assessment, control strategies, (ii) ecology and biological control of mycotoxigenic Aspergilli in the fields, and (iii) pre-harvest and post-harvest management of mycotoxigenic Aspergilli and their mycotoxin production. We hope that the wealth of information generously provided by the Aspergillus mycotoxin research community will help the hard work of all those experts, who are active in this important field, and the papers collected here will be instructive and illuminating readings for students and the public as well.

RASFF Alert – Mycotoxins -Fumonsins – Shelled Groundnuts

European Food Alerts

RASFF

fumonisins (B1 = 2.7 µg/kg – ppb) in shelled groundnuts from Argentina in the UK

Research – Potential of pulsed electric field to control Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin and mutagenicity levels: Sesame seed quality

Wiley Online

kswfoodworld

Image CDC

Seed processing technologies are essential for seed safety and functionality through protection of physicochemical quality, pathogen inactivation, aflatoxin detoxification and alleviation of mutagenicity. Design of a pilot‐scale unit of pulsed electric fields (PEF) to treat sesame seeds with respect to quality parameters, Aspergillus parasiticus inactivation and aflatoxin reduction as well as alleviation of aflatoxin mutagenicity were prompted in this study. PEF energy ranged from 0.97 to 17.28 J achieved maximum reductions of peroxide value and acidity number of 67.4 and 85.7%, respectively, and did not change color L*, a*, b* and hue values. A 60% reduction of A. parasiticus counts occurred at the maximum PEF energy. Aflatoxins G1, G2, B1, and B2 contents decreased by 94.7, 92.7, 86.9, and 98.7%, respectively. Except for the samples treated by 2.16 J with 100 μg/plate and by 6.80 J with 10 μg/plate, PEF treatment provided elimination of aflatoxin mutagenity. It is concluded that PEF treatment can be used to treat sesame seeds with preservation of physicochemical properties, inactivation of A. parasiticus and decomposition of aflatoxins with reduced mutagenicity.

RASFF Alert – Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Zearalenone in Wheat

European Food Alerts

RASFF

deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone in wheat from the Czech Republic in Germany

Research – Mycotoxins: A Threat To Poultry Sector

Technology Times

Campylobacter kswfoodworld

Wheat, maize, barley and peanuts are different sources of mycotoxins. If toxins invade crops before harvesting these are called as field fungi. If it invades post- harvest, they are called storage fungi. Mycotoxins cause heavy economic losses. These are common in tropical and sub-tropical countries in and around Asia.The highest occurring mycotoxin in Asia was FUM (fumonisins), detected in 85% of the samples at an average concentration of 1,354 ppb(parts per billion) .

The highest occurrence of FUM in Asia was detected in a Chinese corn sample (169,500 ppb). DON (deoxynivalenol) prevalence and average concentration in Asia were 77% and 735 ppb, respectively. ZEN (Zearalenone) was the third highest occurring mycotoxin in Asian samples, detected in 49% of tested samples at an average concentration of 201 ppb. In Asia, the highest ZEN value was detected in a Chinese grass sample (8,113 ppb). Aflatoxin was found in 38% of the samples at the highest average concentration worldwide (58 ppb).

Research – The effect of royal jelly and propolis alone and in combination on inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth, aflatoxin production, and aflR gene expression

Wiley Online

The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of royal jelly (RJ) and propolis on growth, aflatoxin production and aflR gene expression in Aspergillus parasiticus . Inhibitory effect of RJ and propolis against a standard strain of A. parasiticus (ATCC 15517) was determined alone and in combination in accordance with the CLSI M38‐A2 and checkerboard methods, respectively. The aflatoxin concentrations in the control and treated media were determined by HPLC. Also, the quantitative changes in the aflR gene expression were analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of RJ and propolis alone were 3,200 and 100μg/ml, respectively. Also, the MICs of RJ and propolis in combination were 200 and 25μg/ml, respectively. When combined, a synergistic interaction was observed with a FICI of 0.312. Total levels of aflatoxin decreased from 386.1ppm to 8.72, 3.01 and 1.75ppm at 1,600μg/ml of RJ, 50μg/ml of propolis and 100+12.5μg/ml of RJ and propolis, respectively. In addition, the level of afIR gene expression was significantly decreased after treatment with RJ and propolis extracts alone and with their combination. The findings reveal that RJ and propolis extracts, either alone or in combination, have a significant inhibitory effect on aflR gene expression in aflatoxin production.