Category Archives: Bacillus

RASFF Alert- Bacillus cereus – Millet Flour


Aflatoxins and Bacillus cereus in organic sesame seeds from Togo in Germany, Netherlands and Switzerland

Research – Control of Bacillus weihenstephanensis in Pasteurized Liquid Whole Eggs Formulated with Nisin

Journal of Food Protection

Bacillus weihenstephanensis can grow at refrigeration temperature and cause food poisoning. It has been isolated from liquid whole egg products. The moderate heat used for pasteurization of liquid egg products is ineffective for killing spore-forming bacteria including Bacillus. Available predictive models and a pretrial study in broth suggested the potential for growth of Bacillus spp. under the tested conditions. Hence, hurdles such as storage of product below 4°C or use of preservatives would be needed to ensure the food safety of pasteurized egg products. This study evaluated the growth inhibition of B. weihenstephanensis in pasteurized liquid whole egg product formulated with 6.25 ppm nisin during storage at refrigerated and abuse refrigerated temperatures for a total 13 weeks, in three replicate trials. At day 0, the product had a pH of 7.52±0.29, while background microflora such as aerobic plate counts, presumptive B. cereus, and yeast and molds were <10 CFU/g. Product inoculated with target 2.5 log10 CFU/g of B. weihenstephanensis, stored at 4°C for 4 weeks and subsequently at 7 or 10°C for 9 weeks exhibited no growth in all three replicate trials.  Average counts reduced (p<0.05) by at least one-log10 in six weeks in all samples stored at either 7 or 10°C. Similarly, growth of total plate counts, presumptive Bacillus spp., yeast and mold counts was not observed in uninoculated controls stored at 4°C for 4 weeks and subsequently at 7 or 10°C for 9 weeks. Visual and odor evaluation performed at each sampling time point showed no abnormalities. This study assessed the efficacy of maximum allowed level of nisin for use in pasteurized liquid whole eggs and validated the inhibition of B. weihenstephanensis in the product for an extended shelf life of up to 13 weeks.

USA – FDA Enforcement Report – Ripple Dairy-Free. As It Should Be 8g Plant Based Protein – Bacillus cereus


Product Description:

Ripple Dairy-Free. As It Should Be8g Plant Based Protein;Half the Sugar of Dairy MilkPET bottle with twist cap50% More Calcium that Dairy Milk.Keep refrigerated. Fresh for 7-10 days after opening.48 fl oz. (1.5 qt) ((1.42L) – 6 x 48 ox. bottles per caseIngredients:Water, Pea Protein blend, (water, pea protein) cane more…

Reason for Recall:

Complaint led investigation found the presence of Bacillus Cereus in one lot of product.

Product Quantity:

YF 21250: 8,636,YF 21251: 8,864

Recall Number:


Code Information:

Lot numbers: YF21250, Best by: 3/6/2022 Lot number: YF21251, Best by: 3/7/2022


Class II

Research – The Application of Bacillus subtilis for Adhesion Inhibition of Pseudomonas and Preservation of Fresh Fish


Inhibiting the growth of spoilage bacteria, such as Pseudomonas spp., is key to reducing spoilage in fish. The mucus adhesion test in vitro showed that the adhesion ability of Bacillus subtilis was positively correlated with its inhibition ability to Pseudomonas spp. In vivo experiments of tilapia showed that dietary supplementation with B. subtilis could reduce the adhesion and colonization of Pseudomonas spp. in fish intestines and flesh, as well as reduce total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) production. High throughput and metabolomic analysis showed treatment with B. subtilis, especially C6, reduced the growth of Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp., and Enterobacterium spp., as well as aromatic spoilage compounds associated with these bacteria, such as indole, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenol, and 1-octen-3-ol. Our work showed that B. subtilis could improve the flavor of fish by changing the intestinal flora of fish, and it shows great promise as a microecological preservative. View Full-Text

USA – Smithfield Packaged Meats Corp. Dba Margherita Meats Inc. Recalls Pepperoni Products Due To Possible Bacillus Cereus Contamination


WASHINGTON, Dec. 14, 2021 – Smithfield Packaged Meats Corp., doing business as Margherita Meats, Inc., an Omaha, Neb. establishment, is recalling approximately 10,990 pounds of ready-to-eat (RTE) pepperoni products that may be adulterated with Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced today.

The RTE unsliced pepperoni product was produced and packaged on June 17, 2021.  The following products are subject to recall [view label]:

  • 8-oz. plastic shrink-wrapped packages containing unsliced pepperoni “Margherita PEPPERONI” with lot code P1931C and a “use by date” of 12-14-21 represented on the label.

The products subject to recall bear establishment number “EST. 19” inside the USDA mark of inspection. These items were shipped to retail locations nationwide.

The problem was discovered when the Department of Defense notified FSIS that they found B. cereus during routine product testing.

B. cereus is a toxin-producing microorganism that causes diarrhea and vomiting in people. Those with compromised immune systems are at risk for more severe illness. Vigorous rehydration and other supportive care including antibiotics are the usual treatment.

There have been no confirmed reports of adverse reactions due to consumption of these products. Anyone concerned about an injury or illness should contact a healthcare provider.

FSIS is concerned that some product may be in consumers’ pantries or refrigerators. Consumers who have purchased these products are urged not to consume them. These products should be thrown away or returned to the place of purchase.

FSIS routinely conducts recall effectiveness checks to verify recalling firms notify their customers of the recall and that steps are taken to make certain that the product is no longer available to consumers. When available, the retail distribution list(s) will be posted on the FSIS website at

Media with questions regarding the recall can contact Jim Monroe, Corporate Affairs, Margherita Meats Corp., at (703) 559-1875. Consumers should call the Margherita Consumer Affairs Hotline at (844) 342-2596.

Consumers with food safety questions can call the toll-free USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline at 1-888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854) or live chat via Ask USDA from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. (Eastern Time) Monday through Friday. Consumers can also browse food safety messages at Ask USDA or send a question via email to For consumers that need to report a problem with a meat, poultry, or egg product, the online Electronic Consumer Complaint Monitoring System can be accessed 24 hours a day at

Click to access 047-2021-labels.pdf

Research – Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ALB65 Inhibits the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on Cantaloupe Melons


Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes high rates of hospitalization and mortality in people infected. Contamination of fresh, ready to eat produce by this pathogen is especially troubling because of the ability of this bacterium to grow on produce under refrigeration temperatures. In this study, we created a library of over 8,000 plant phyllosphere-associated bacteria and screened them for the ability to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes in an in vitro fluorescence-based assay. One isolate, later identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ALB65, was able to inhibit the fluorescence of L. monocytogenes by >30-fold in vitro. B. amyloliquefaciens ALB65 was also able to grow, persist, and reduce the growth of L. monocytogenes by >1.5 log CFU on cantaloupe melon rinds inoculated with 5 × 103 CFU at 30°C and was able to completely inhibit its growth at temperatures below 8°C. DNA sequence analysis of the B. amyloliquefaciens ALB65 genome revealed six gene clusters that are predicted to encode genes for antibiotic production; however, no plant or human virulence factors were identified. These data suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens ALB65 is an effective and safe biological control agent for the reduction of L. monocytogenes growth on intact cantaloupe melons and possibly other types of produce.
IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes is estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to cause disease in approximately 1,600 to 2,500 people in the United States every year. The largest known outbreak of listeriosis in the United States was associated with intact cantaloupe melons in 2011, resulting in 147 hospitalizations and 33 deaths. In this study, we demonstrated that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ALB65 is an effective biological control agent for the reduction of L. monocytogenes growth on intact cantaloupe melons under both pre- and postharvest conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens ALB65 can completely inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes during cold storage (<8°C).

RASFF Alert- Bacillus cereus – Organic Barley Grass Powder


Bacillus cereus in organic barley grass powder from Hungary in Germany

Research – Ultrashort-pulse lasers kill bacterial superbugs, spores

Science Daily

Life-threatening bacteria are becoming ever more resistant to antibiotics, making the search for alternatives to antibiotics an increasingly urgent challenge. For certain applications, one alternative may be a special type of laser.

Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light can kill multidrug-resistant bacteria and hardy bacterial spores. The findings, available online in the Journal of Biophotonics, open up the possibility of using such lasers to destroy bacteria that are hard to kill by other means. The researchers previously have shown that such lasers don’t damage human cells, making it possible to envision using the lasers to sterilize wounds or disinfect blood products.

“The ultrashort-pulse laser technology uniquely inactivates pathogens while preserving human proteins and cells,” said first author Shaw-Wei (David) Tsen, MD, PhD, an instructor of radiology at Washington University’s Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR). “Imagine if, prior to closing a surgical wound, we could scan a laser beam across the site and further reduce the chances of infection. I can see this technology being used soon to disinfect biological products in vitro, and even to treat bloodstream infections in the future by putting patients on dialysis and passing the blood through a laser treatment device.”

Tsen and senior author Samuel Achilefu, PhD, the Michel M. Ter-Pogossian Professor of Radiology and director of MIR’s Biophotonics Research Center, have been exploring the germicidal properties of ultrashort-pulse lasers for years. They have shown that such lasers can inactivate viruses and ordinary bacteria without harming human cells. In the new study, conducted in collaboration with Shelley Haydel, PhD, a professor of microbiology at Arizona State University, they extended their exploration to antibiotic-resistant bacteria and bacterial spores.

The researchers trained their lasers on multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which causes infections of the skin, lungs and other organs, and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli), which cause urinary tract infections, diarrhea and wound infections. Apart from their shared ability to make people miserable, MRSA and E. coli are very different types of bacteria, representing two distant branches of the bacterial kingdom. The researchers also looked at spores of the bacterium Bacillus cereus, which causes food poisoning and food spoilage. Bacillus spores can withstand boiling and cooking.

In all cases, the lasers killed more than 99.9% of the target organisms, reducing their numbers by more than 1,000 times.

Viruses and bacteria contain densely packed protein structures that can be excited by an ultrashort-pulse laser. The laser kills by causing these protein structures to vibrate until some of their molecular bonds break. The broken ends quickly reattach to whatever they can find, which in many cases is not what they had been attached to before. The result is a mess of incorrect linkages inside and between proteins, and that mess causes normal protein function in microorganisms to grind to a halt.

“We previously published a paper in which we showed that the laser power matters,” Tsen said. “At a certain laser power, we’re inactivating viruses. As you increase the power, you start inactivating bacteria. But it takes even higher power than that, and we’re talking orders of magnitude, to start killing human cells. So there is a therapeutic window where we can tune the laser parameters such that we can kill pathogens without affecting the human cells.”

Heat, radiation and chemicals such as bleach are effective at sterilizing objects, but most are too damaging to be used on people or biological products. By inactivating all kinds of bacteria and viruses without damaging cells, ultrashort-pulse lasers could provide a new approach to making blood products and other biological products safer.

“Anything derived from human or animal sources could be contaminated with pathogens,” Tsen said. “We screen all blood products before transfusing them to patients. The problem is that we have to know what we’re screening for. If a new blood-borne virus emerges, like HIV did in the ’70s and ’80s, it could get into the blood supply before we know it. Ultrashort-pulse lasers could be a way to make sure that our blood supply is clear of pathogens both known and unknown.”

Story Source:

Materials provided by Washington University School of Medicine. Original written by Tamara Bhandari. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

RASFF Alert- Bacillus cereus – Food Supplement


Bacillus cereus (Enterotoxin-producing strain) in food supplement from United Kingdom in Finland

France – Organic cocoa coconut pleasure – Bacillus cereus

Gov france

Identifying information for the recalled product

  • Product category Food
  • Product sub-category Sweet products
  • Product brand name The Little Shoots
  • Names of models or references Les Petites Pousses organic coconut milk and cocoa dessert
  • Product identification
    Lot Dated
    312 Use-by date 12/13/2021
  • Packaging2 jars of 90g ea.
  • Start date / End of marketing From 11/16/2021 to 11/16/2021
  • Storage temperature Product to be stored in the refrigerator
  • Geographical sales area Whole France
  • Distributors Casino, Casino Group, nearby Carrefour, Auchan supermarkets

Practical information regarding the recall

  • Reason for recall Presence of presumptive Bacillus cereus above the alert threshold
  • Risks incurred by the consumer Bacillus cereus