Category Archives: Food Toxin

Research – Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence genes of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pork meat in retail outlets in India

Wiley Online

Abstract

Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus was carried out in a total of 120 retail pork samples and the overall prevalence of S. aureus in retail pork meat was 76.67%. All the isolates were resistant to both Ampicillin and Tetracycline (100%) followed by Cefoxitin, Oxacillin, Erythromycin, Amoxicillin, and Novobiocin. The multiple antibiotic resistance index of majority of the isolates were 0.3 and above. Methicillin resistance based on polymerase chain reaction revealed that 76.09% carried either mecA or mecC. The prevalence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in pork was 82.61% and of the various toxin genes sei was the major gene followed by segsebsej, sed, seh, sec, and sea in decreasing order. The prevalence of multidrug resistant and virulent S. aureus carrying enterotoxin genes in retail pork meat is a clear indication of the potential of these isolates in causing foodborne intoxication under favorable conditions to the consumers.

Practical application

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a well‐known opportunistic pathogen widely present in a broad host range, including human beings and food producing animals, such as pigs, cows, goats and chickens. It has the potential to contaminate animal products and they gain entry in to the food chain, during processing, preparation and storage. The wide use of antibiotics has led to the emergence of multi drug resistant strains, particularly Methicillin‐resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The present study highlights the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance with special reference to MRSA and enterotoxin gene profile of S. aureus isolated from retail pork meat. The results will provide the insights of the existing situation of antimicrobial resistance in pork meat in India.

Research – Evaluation of the effects of temperature on processed coffee beans in the presence of fungi and ochratoxin A

Wiley Online

Abstract

The coffee bean is sensitive to contamination with ocratoxigenic fungi; temperature influences the growth, and germination of these fungi, as well as the fungal toxins produced. The objectives of this study were to assess the distribution of toxigenic species, analyze the concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Arabica coffee beans, and aplicate a mathematical model that considers the influence of actual temperature to predict the effects of projected temperature increase on OTA production. This toxin was, however, not detected in any of the coffee bean species analyzed here. The species with the highest incidence were Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus ochraceus. The results of the mathematical model demonstrated the influence of temperature on the production of the toxin. This information indicates the distribution of toxigenic fungal species in the regions of coffee cultivation in Minas Gerais, and thus, will assist the producers in adopting preventive measures.

Practical applications

Brazil is the largest coffee producer and exporter, which makes it a leader in the global coffee market; the state of Minas Gerais is responsible for 50% of this production. Following the global trend, Brazil has regulated the maximum permissible limit for ochratoxin A in coffee beans. This has led to a great interest in monitoring fungi and toxin production, mainly during the postharvest stage in the coffee cultivation regions of Brazil. Preventive measures can aid in the safe production of coffee beans, and the use of mathematical models capable of predicting the growth and production of fungal toxins are fundamental to informing the producers of the most favorable conditions in terms of temperature, as well as increases in ambient temperature, in specific regions of interest

USA – FDA Report on E. Coli O157 Outbreak in Romaine Lettuce Points to “Significant” Finding of Strain in Sediment of Water Reservoir

Food Safety Tech 

The November 2018 outbreak of E.coli O157:H7 infections linked to romaine lettuce caused 62 illnesses across 16 states. The FDA zeroed in on the Central Coast growing regions of northern and Central California as being responsible for the contamination. The outbreak was declared over on January 9 and yesterday FDA released the report, “Factors Potentially Contributing to the Contamination of Romaine Lettuce Implicated in the Fall 2018 Multi-State Outbreak of E.Coli O157:H7”, which provides an overview of the investigation.

The report states that a sediment sample coming from an on-farm water reservoir in Santa Maria (Santa Barbara County, California) tested positive for the outbreak strain of E. coli O157:H7. Although this particular farm was identified in several legs of the Fall 2018 traceback investigations that occurred in the United States and Canada, as well as being a possible supplier of romaine lettuce in the 2017 traceback investigations, the FDA said that the farm is not the single source of the outbreak, as there is “insufficient evidence”. The traceback suggests that the contaminated lettuce could have come from several farms, because not all tracebacks led to the farm on which the contaminated sediment was found.

 

RASFF Alert – Aflatoxin – Hazelnuts – Blanched Groundnuts – Groundnuts – Pistachios – Organic Muesli

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RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 21; Tot. = 22 µg/kg – ppb) in hazelnuts from Turkey in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 6.7; Tot. = 7.7 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnuts from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 23; Tot. = 26 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnuts from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 10; Tot. = 15 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnut kernels from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 33.5; Tot. = 36.9 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts in shell from Egypt in Italy

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 11; Tot. = 13 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from Paraguay in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 2.7 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 16.93; Tot. = 19.09 µg/kg – ppb) in roasted and salted pistachios in shell from Turkey in Germany

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 2.2 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 18; Tot. = 60 µg/kg – ppb) in groundnuts from Argentina in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 4.9; Tot. = 5.6 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnuts from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 7.6 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnuts from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 36; Tot. = 40 µg/kg – ppb) in blanched groundnuts from the United States in the Netherlands

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 5.7; Tot. = 8.8 µg/kg – ppb) in organic muesli from Belgium in Belgium

RASFF – aflatoxins (B1 = 46.87; Tot. = 56.11 µg/kg – ppb) in pistachio nuts without shell from Iran, via Turkey in Italy

RASFF Alert – Norovirus – Live Oysters

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RASFF – norovirus (GI and GII /2g) in live oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from Portugal in the Netherlands

RASFF Alerts – Ochratoxin A – Green Coffee

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RASFF – ochratoxin A (>15 µg/kg – ppb) in green coffee from Vietnam in Spain

RASFF – ochratoxin A (13.81 µg/kg – ppb) in green coffee from Vietnam in Spain

RASFF Alert – Histamine – Frozen Cooked Tuna Loins

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RASFF – histamine (359 mg/kg – ppm) in frozen cooked tuna loins from Thailand in France