Category Archives: Histamine

RASFF Alerts – Histamine – Chilled Smoked Tuna – VP Marinated Tuna Loins

Last two weeks catch up

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RASFF – histamine (7122 mg/kg – ppm) in chilled smoked tuna (Thunnus Albacares) from Spain in Italy

RASFF – histamine (1086 mg/kg – ppm) in frozen vacuum-packed marinated tuna loins (Thunnus albacares) from Vietnam in Switzerland

USA – FDA Advises Consumers Not to Eat Yellowfin Tuna Steaks from Kroger Retail Stores in Multiple States

FDA

Audience

  • Consumers who recently experienced symptoms of scombroid poisoning after eating yellowfin tuna steaks.
  • Consumers who purchased yellowfin tuna steaks from Kroger retail stores in AL, AR, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MO, MS, NE, OH, SC, TN, VA and WV with sell by dates from August 29, 2019 to September 14, 2019.

Product

  • Yellowfin tuna steaks sold at Kroger retail stores in AL, AR, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MO, MS, NE, OH, SC, TN, VA and WV with sell by dates from August 29, 2019 and September 14, 2019. The product may be sold as raw yellowfin tuna steaks at the seafood counter or seasoned in store-prepped Styrofoam trays.

Purpose

The FDA is advising consumers to not eat yellowfin tuna steaks from the seafood counter or seasoned yellowfin tuna steaks in store-prepped Styrofoam trays from Kroger retail stores in AL, AR, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MO, MS, NE, OH, SC, TN, VA and WV with sell by dates from August 29, 2019 and September 14, 2019 because they may cause scombroid poisoning. Consumers of these products who are experiencing symptoms of scombroid poisoning should contact their healthcare provider. Consumers of these products who have recently experienced symptoms of scombroid poisoning should report their symptoms to their local Health Department.

Symptoms of Scombroid Poisoning

Scombroid poisoning is caused by eating fish that has not been properly refrigerated or preserved and therefore contains high levels of histamine. Scombroid poisoning is most commonly caused by fish that have naturally high levels of the amino acid histidine, which bacteria convert to histamine when the fish is not correctly stored.

Scombroid symptoms usually develop within a few minutes to an hour after eating contaminated fish. They usually resemble an allergic reaction, such as flushing of the face, headache, heart palpitations, itching, blurred vision, cramps, and diarrhea. Symptoms can be treated with antihistamines. Even without treatment, people usually get better within 12 hours.

If you suspect you have symptoms of scombroid poisoning, contact a health professional.

Summary of Problem and Scope

On September 4, 2019, the FDA became aware of multiple scombroid poisoning cases in individuals who consumed tuna steaks purchased from three separate Kroger retail locations in Ohio.  On September 5, 2019, Kroger agreed to remove all yellowfin tuna steaks from their stores in AL, AR, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MO, MS, NE, OH, SC, TN, VA and WV as well as  begin notifying consumers who had purchased this product to dispose of or return the product to the store.

The FDA is also working with the distributor to remove any additional product from the market.

Recommendations for Consumers

Consumers who have symptoms of scombroid poisoning should contact their health care provider to report their symptoms and receive care.

To report a complaint or adverse event (illness or serious allergic reaction), you can

Visit www.fda.gov/fcic for additional consumer and industry assistance.

FDA Actions

The FDA will continue to work with Kroger, the distributor, and state and local partners to remove all contaminated product from the market.

RASFF Alerts – Histamine – Tuna

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RASFF – histamine (740 mg/kg – ppm) in tuna loins from Vietnam in Portugal

RASFF – histamine (2600 mg/kg – ppm) in frozen tuna from Vietnam in Belgium

Summary of the last two weeks RASFF Alerts – Histamine – Chilled Herring Fillets – Frozen Tuna

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RASFF – histamine (310 mg/kg – ppm) in chilled herring fillets from the Netherlands in Belgium

RASFF – histamine (437 mg/kg – ppm) in frozen tuna from Vietnam in Portugal

RASFF – histamine (457 mg/kg – ppm) in frozen tuna from Vietnam in Portugal

Research – Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite on Biofilm-Forming Ability of Histamine-Producing Bacteria Isolated from Fish

Journal of Food Protection

ABSTRACT

Histamine poisoning occurs when temperature-abused marine fish containing elevated levels of histamine are consumed. Histamine-producing bacteria found in fish can colonize processing surfaces and form biofilms. In this study, the biofilm-forming abilities of histamine-producing bacteria from Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) and the effect of hypochlorite treatment on biofilm formation were studied. The isolates of this study produced histamine in the range of 471 to 2,126 ppm. The histidine decarboxylase gene hdc was detected in all isolates producing histamine except in one strain each of Psychrobacter pulmonis and Proteus vulgaris. All isolates tested in this study produced moderate biofilms under control conditions, whereas exposure to 1 and 3 ppm of sodium hypochlorite significantly enhanced biofilm formation. However, exposure to 5 ppm of sodium hypochlorite showed an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all the isolates except Klebsiella variicola. The results of this study suggest that histamine-producing bacteria can form stable biofilms and that this activity may be enhanced by the application of low levels of sodium hypochlorite, a phenomenon that might influence the persistence of histamine-producing bacteria in fish processing areas.

HIGHLIGHTS
  • Bacteria isolated from Indian mackerel produced histamine in the range of 471 to 2,126 ppm.

  • Histamine-producing bacteria isolated from the same fish can vary in the levels of histamine produced.

  • The hdc gene was not detected in one strain each of Psychrobacter pulmonis and Proteus vulgaris.

  • All histamine-producing bacteria formed moderate biofilms under control conditions.

  • Exposure to 1 and 3 ppm of sodium hypochlorite increased biofilm formation by histamine-producing bacteria.

RASFF Alert – Histamine – Defrosted Tuna Fillets

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RASFF – histamine (332.17 mg/kg – ppm) in defrosted tuna fillets from Italy in Croatia

 

RASFF Alert – Foodborne Outbreak suspected (Histamine) – Chilled Tuna in Sunflower Oil

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RASFF – foodborne outbreak suspected (histamine) to be caused by chilled tuna in sunflower oil from Ecuador in Italy