Category Archives: Clostridium

USA – Preparing Your Holiday Turkey Safely


Are you preparing a turkey for your holiday meal? Turkey and its juice can be contaminated with germs that can make you and your family sick. For example, turkey can contain SalmonellaClostridium perfringensCampylobacter, and other germs. Whether you’re cooking a whole bird or a part of it, such as the breast, you should take special care. Follow the steps below to safely store, thaw, handle, and cook your turkey.

1. Store Turkey Properly

  • Frozen raw turkey should be stored in the freezer until you are ready to thaw it. Make sure your freezer is at 0˚F or below. Don’t store a turkey in a place where you can’t closely monitor the temperature, such as in a car trunk, a basement, the back porch, or in snow.
  • Fresh raw turkey can be stored in the refrigerator 1 to 2 days before cooking.

2. Thaw Turkey Safely

Use one of these methods to thaw your turkey.

  • Thaw your turkey in the refrigerator.
    • Keep your turkey in its original wrapping and place it in a container before putting it in the refrigerator. The container will prevent the turkey’s juice from dripping on other food.
    • Allow about 24 hours of thawing for each 4 to5 pounds of turkey.
    • A turkey thawed in the refrigerator can remain in the refrigerator for 1 to 2 days before cooking.
  • Thaw your turkey in cold water.
    • Be sure your turkey is in a leak-proof plastic bag before you place it in the sink. The bag will prevent the turkey’s juice from spreading in the kitchen. It will also prevent the turkey from absorbing water, which can make your cooked turkey runny.
    • Make sure your turkey is fully covered with the cold tap water.
    • Change the water every 30 minutes.
    • Allow about 30 minutes of thawing for each pound of turkey.
    • A turkey thawed in cold water must be cooked immediately after thawing.
  • Thaw your turkey in the microwave.
    • Follow the microwave manufacturer’s instructions for thawing turkeys.
    • A turkey thawed in the microwave must be cooked immediately after thawing.

Never thaw your turkey by leaving it out on the counter. A turkey must thaw at a safe temperature. When a turkey stays out at room temperature for more than 2 hours, its temperature becomes unsafe even if the center is still frozen. Germs can grow rapidly in the “danger zone” between 40°F and 140°F.

Get more information about thawing turkeys.external icon

3. Handle Turkey Correctly to Prevent the Spread of Germs

Raw turkey and its juice can contaminate anything they touch. Be sure to handle your turkey correctly to prevent harmful germs from spreading to your food, family, and friends.

  • Wash your hands with soap and water for 20 seconds before and after handling turkey.
  • Use a separate cutting board for raw turkey.
  • Never place cooked food or fresh produce on a plate, cutting board, or other surface that held raw turkey.
  • Wash cutting boards, utensils, dishes, and countertops with hot soapy water after preparing raw turkey and before you prepare the next item.

Learn more about the four steps to food safety: clean, separate, cook, and chill.

Do not wash or rinse raw turkey. Federal food safety advice has recommended against washing turkey or chicken since 2005, but some habits are hard to break. A 2020 survey* found that 78% of participants reported washing or rinsing turkey before cooking. Old recipes and family cooking traditions may tempt you to keep this practice going, but it can make you and your family sick. Poultry juices can spread in the kitchen and contaminate other foods, utensils, and countertops.

∗Source: 2020 Porter Novelli Consumer Stylesexternal icon Survey of 3,625 U.S. adults

4. Cook Stuffing Thoroughly

It’s safest to cook stuffingexternal icon in a casserole dish instead of inside your turkey. Cooking stuffing in a casserole dish makes it easy to be sure the stuffing is thoroughly cooked. If you do cook stuffing in the turkey, put the stuffing in the turkey just before cooking.

With either cooking method, use a food thermometer to make sure the stuffing’s center reaches 165°F. Germs can survive in stuffing that has not reached 165°F. If you cooked the stuffing in your turkey, wait 20 minutes after taking the bird out of the oven before removing the stuffing. This allows the stuffing to cook a little longer.

5. Cook Turkey Thoroughly

To roast a turkey in your oven, set the oven temperature to at least 325°F. Place the completely thawed turkey in a roasting pan that is 2 to 2-1/2 inches deep. Cooking timesexternal icon depend on the weight of the turkey and whether it is stuffed.

Use a food thermometer to make sure the turkey has reached a safe minimum cooking temperature of 165°F. Check by inserting a food thermometer into the center of the stuffing and the thickest part of the breast, thigh, and wing. Even if your turkey has a pop-up timer, you should still use a food thermometer to check that it is safely cooked. Let the turkey stand 20 minutes before removing all stuffing from the cavity and carving the meat. This will let the stuffing cook a little longer and make the turkey easier to carveexternal icon.

If you are cooking your turkey using another method, such as smoking or frying it, or roasting a turkey that is not fully thawed, follow these guidelinesexternal icon for cooking your bird safely.

Learn more about safe minimum cooking temperaturesexternal icon for other foods and how to use a food thermometerexternal icon.

6. Take Care of Leftovers

Refrigerate leftoversexternal icon at 40°F or colder within 2 hours of cooking to prevent food poisoning. Slice or divide big cuts of meat, such as a roast turkey, into small quantities for refrigeration so they can cool quickly. Reheat all leftovers to at least 165°F before serving.

Cooked turkey and dishes made with turkey, such as a casserole, can be stored in the refrigerator for 3 to 4 days or can be frozen to store longer.

Always refrigerate leftovers within 2 hours, or 1 hour if exposed to temperatures above 90°F (like a hot car or picnic).

The bacteria Clostridium perfringens grows in cooked foods left at room temperature. It is the second most common bacterial cause of food poisoning. The major symptoms are vomiting and abdominal cramps within 6 to 24 hours after eating.

  • Clostridium perfringens outbreaks occur most often in November and December.
  • Many of these outbreaks have been linked to foods commonly served during the holidays, such as turkey and roast beef.

Ukraine – Two botulism cases reported in Zaporizhzhia Oblast

Outbreak News Today

Two cases of foodborne botulism were reported in Berdyansk, Zaporizhzhia Oblast in southeastern Ukraine.

On November 17, it was reported that botulism was found in two residents of the city. An outbreak of the disease occurred among members of the same family. Homemade dried fish (roach, bream) could be a source of botulism.

The state of health of the sick is not reported.

Food borne botulism is a severe intoxication caused by eating the preformed toxin present in contaminated food.

Food borne botulism occurs when the bacterium Clostridium botulinum is allowed to grow and produce toxin in food that is later eaten without sufficient heating or cooking to inactivate the toxin. Botulinum toxin is one

Research – Clostridial Neurotoxins: Structure, Function and Implications to Other Bacterial Toxins


Gram-positive bacteria are ancient organisms. Many bacteria, including Gram-positive bacteria, produce toxins to manipulate the host, leading to various diseases. While the targets of Gram-positive bacterial toxins are diverse, many of those toxins use a similar mechanism to invade host cells and exert their functions. Clostridial neurotoxins produced by Clostridial tetani and Clostridial botulinum provide a classical example to illustrate the structure–function relationship of bacterial toxins. Here, we critically review the recent progress of the structure–function relationship of clostridial neurotoxins, including the diversity of the clostridial neurotoxins, the mode of actions, and the flexible structures required for the activation of toxins. The mechanism clostridial neurotoxins use for triggering their activity is shared with many other Gram-positive bacterial toxins, especially molten globule-type structures. This review also summarizes the implications of the molten globule-type flexible structures to other Gram-positive bacterial toxins. Understanding these highly dynamic flexible structures in solution and their role in the function of bacterial toxins not only fills in the missing link of the high-resolution structures from X-ray crystallography but also provides vital information for better designing antidotes against those toxins. View Full-Text

RASFF Alert- Clostridium – Salted Sheep Casings


Clostridium (up to 6400 CFU/g) in salted sheep casings from Iran in Greece and Germany

France – Superior cooked ham, skinned and defatted 3 slices conservation without nitrite – Clostridium

Gov france

Identifying information for the recalled product

  • Product category Food
  • Product sub-category Meats
  • Product brand name Madrange
  • Names of models or references Superior cooked ham 3 slices (120 g) conservation without nitrite Madrange
  • Product identification
    GTIN Lot Dated
    3180940089406 281 08:02 CJ10OB Use-by date 02/11/2021
  • Products Listtracing_aval_JB_cuit_DD3_CSN _-. pdf Enclosed
  • PackagingPackaged in modified atmosphere
  • Start date / End of marketing From 10/13/2021 to 10/24/2021
  • Storage temperature Product to be stored in the refrigerator
  • Health mark FR 87.065.001 CE
  • Geographical sales area Whole France
  • Distributors INTERMACHE
  • List of points of saletracing_aval_JB_cuit_DD3_CSN _-. pdf

Practical information regarding the recall

  • Reason for recall Non-compliant salt level. Product preservation risk
  • Risks incurred by the consumer Clostridium botulinum (causative agent of botulism)
    Clostridium perfringens

Botulism Symptoms.



Signs and symptoms might include:

  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Muscle weakness
  • Double vision
  • Drooping eyelids
  • Blurry vision
  • Slurred speech
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty moving the eyes

Possible signs and symptoms in foodborne botulism might also include:

  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Stomach pain
  • Diarrhea

Signs and symptoms in an infant might include:

  • Constipation
  • Poor feeding
  • Drooping eyelids
  • Pupils that are slow to react to light
  • Face showing less expression than usual
  • Weak cry that sounds different than usual
  • Difficulty breathing

People with botulism might not have all of these symptoms at the same time.

The symptoms all result from muscle paralysis caused by the toxin. If untreated, the disease may progress and symptoms may worsen to cause full paralysis of some muscles, including those used in breathing and those in the arms, legs, and trunk (part of the body from the neck to the pelvis area, also called the torso).

In foodborne botulism, symptoms generally begin 18 to 36 hours after eating a contaminated food.

If you or someone you know has symptoms of botulism, immediately see your doctor or go to the emergency room.

Canada – Olivera brand sliced olives may be unsafe due to potential presence of dangerous bacteria – Clostridium botulinum


Olivera – Black Sliced Olives – 2.84 Litres    Olivera – Green Sliced Olives – 2.84 Litres  Olivera – Sliced olives – 2.84 Litres

Recall details

Ottawa, October 5, 2021 – Distribution Alimentaire Tony is recalling Olivera brand sliced olives from the marketplace because they may permit the growth of Clostridium botulinum. Consumers should not consume and distributors, retailers and food service establishments such as hotels, restaurants, cafeterias, hospitals and nursing homes should not sell or use the recalled products described below.

Recalled products

Brand Product Size UPC Codes
Olivera Black Sliced Olives 2.84 L None PRO : 08/03/2021
EXP : 07/03/2023
LOT NO: 09SB260
Olivera Green Sliced Olives 2.84 L None Pro date: 8/3/2021
EXP date: 7/3/2023
PN: 09sG260

What you should do

If you think you became sick from consuming a recalled product, call your doctor.

Check to see if you have the recalled products in your home or establishment. Recalled products should be thrown out or returned to the location where they were purchased.

Food contaminated with Clostridium botulinum toxin may not look or smell spoiled but can still make you sick.

Symptoms in adults can include facial paralysis or loss of facial expression, unreactive or fixed pupils, difficulty swallowing, drooping eyelids, blurred or double vision, difficulty speaking, including slurred speech, and a change in sound of voice, including hoarseness.

Symptoms of foodborne botulism in children can include difficulty swallowing, slurred speech, generalized weakness and paralysis. In all cases, botulism does not cause a fever. In severe cases of illness, people may die.


This recall was triggered by Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) test results. The CFIA is conducting a food safety investigation, which may lead to the recall of other products. If other high-risk products are recalled, the CFIA will notify the public through updated Food Recall Warnings.

The CFIA is verifying that industry is removing the recalled products from the marketplace.


There have been no reported illnesses associated with the consumption of these products.

Research – Foodborne Botulism in Western Romania: Ten Years’ Experience at a Tertiary Infectious Disease Hospital


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze epidemiological data concerning foodborne botulism in Western Romania over the last decade. Botulism, the toxin formed by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, results in a neuroparalytic disorder capable of severe clinical progression that begins in the cranial nerves and progressively descends. Preventing progression to a severe case entails timely diagnosis since curative assets are restricted. Ingesting food containing a preformed toxin (foodborne botulism) is the most typical form. Methods: Medical records were retrospectively analyzed from 2010 to 2020 for all food botulism cases. A seroneutralization test was performed with type A, B and E anti-botulinum sera to establish the kind of toxin involved. Results: Overall, 18 cases of foodborne botulism were admitted to the hospital during this period and confirmed by laboratory analysis. Most of the participants in our study were men (61.1%), and 77.8% of the total lived in rural areas. All the participants showed classic symptoms of botulism, and dysphagia was present in all cases. The trivalent ABE antitoxin was administered by the hospital, and toxin type B was isolated in all patients. The main sources of the toxin were pork, ham and canned pork meat. Conclusions: Stronger efforts are needed to foster community awareness of foodborne botulism, particularly in home-preserved food. View Full-Text

Russia – Botulism increase reported in Tatarstan

Outbreak News Today


The head of the territorial department of the Rospotrebnadzor Administration for the Republic of Tatarstan, Irina Khairullina said twelve botulism cases have been reported this year in the districts of Almetyevsky, Zainsky, Leninogorsky and Sarmanovsky. This compares with two botulism cases reported in the previous two years.

Khairullina notes, 10 people got sick while eating homemade smoked fish, while 2 people associate their disease with the consumption of smoked goose meat, bought from unknown persons in places of unauthorized trade.

Research – Foodborne Botulism in Ukraine from 1955 to 2018

Mary Anne Liebert


We aim to identify possible biological, social, and economic factors that could influence the prevalence of foodborne botulism (FB). The objective of this article is to assess epidemiological peculiarities of FB in Ukraine from 1955 to 2018 using national epidemiological surveillance data. This article presents an epidemiological descriptive population-based study of the epidemiology of FB using correlation analysis. From 1955 to 2018, 8614 cases of botulism were recorded in Ukraine causing 659 deaths. The distribution of types of botulism toxins is represented by type A (7.97%), B (59.64%), suspected as C (0.56%), E (25.47%), others (5.33%), and unidentified (1.04%). From 1990 to 2015, the rate correlation between Human Development Index (HDI) and incidence of botulism was −0.75 ± 0.20. Homemade canned meat and fish continue to be the leading causes of botulism in Ukraine. Cases related to commercial food were rare or absent, but in recent years (2017–2018), their percentage has increased to 32.56%. The HDI and botulism have an inverse mathematical correlation and predictable logical relationship: with an HDI increase, the incidence of FB decreased. In general, food botulism in Ukraine is related to traditional socioeconomic factors related to cultural food habits. In the face of declining living standards and uncertainty that food products will be physically or economically available, homemade preservation increases. Home food preservation is a major cause of botulism in Ukraine. The elimination of FB is possible in Ukraine only with the complete cessation of home canning and state control over the manufacture and sale of commercial canned products.