Category Archives: Patulin

USA – Washington State juice maker shut down by federal judge for toxins

Food Safety News

At the  FDA’s request, a federal court in Washington State has shutdown a 51-year-old juice maker who was annually supplying 2.9 million apple juice servings to USDA’s national school lunch program.

FDA found juice products at Valley Processing at 108 Blaine Ave in Sunnyside, WA, with inorganic arsenic and patulin, both toxins that pose a health risk to consumers.

Judge Stanley A Bastian on Jan. 14 approved a Consent Decree for Permanent Injunction against Valley Processing, closing the company that employed 71 people in Washington’s Yakima Valley.

Spain – Mycotoxin update on the Hazard Map


In the Hazard Map database, we have updated all the sheets corresponding to the mycotoxins of the chemical hazards block:

  • Aflatoxins
  • Ochratoxins
  • Zearalenone
  • Deoxynivalenol
  • Fumonisins
  • Trichothecenes T-2 and HT2
  • Patulin

Mycotoxins are products of fungal metabolism and their ingestion, inhalation or skin absorption can cause disease or death in animals and people. The most important mycotoxins are produced by molds of the genera Aspergillus , Penicillium and Fusarium .

Among the most common mycotoxins are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearanelone, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 and HT-2 toxins.

Australia – Monde Nissin Australia Pty Ltd t/as nudie Foods — nudie nothing but 2 apples 200mL – Mycotoxin – Patulin


Photograph of nudie nothing but 2 apples 200ml

Identifying features

APN/EAN 9332991002130

What are the defects?

The recall is due to microbial (mycotoxin – patulin) contamination.

What are the hazards?

Food products containing the mycotoxin patulin may cause illness if consumed.

What should consumers do?

Any consumers concerned about their health should seek medical advice and should return the product to the place of purchase for a full refund.

For further information, please contact Monde Nissin Australia Pty Ltd by phone on 1800 466 834 or email or via

Traders who sold this product

Independent food retailers including IGA in NSW, Vic & SA, Independent food retailers in Qld, Tas & WA and Woolworths nationally.

Where the product was sold
Dates available for sale
  • 26 October 2020 – 24 December 2020

Recall advertisements and supporting documentation

Coordinating agency

Food Standards Australia New Zealand is the coordinating agency for this recall.

Australia – Nudie nothing but 2 apples 200ml – Mycotoxin – Patulin


Product information

Monde Nissan Australia Pty Ltd (nudie Foods) is conducting a recall of nudie nothing but 2 apples 200ml. The product has been available for sale at independent food retailers including IGA in NSW, Vic & SA and independent food retailers in Qld, Tas & WA and Woolworths nationally.

Date markings

(All other Best Before dates are not affected)

nudie nothing but 2 apples 200ml


The recall is due to microbial (mycotoxin – patulin) contamination.

Food safety hazard

Food products containing the mycotoxin patulin may cause illness if consumed.

Country of origin


What to do​

Any consumers concerned about their health should seek medical advice and should return the products to the place of purchase for a full refund.

For further information please contact:

Monde Nissan Australia Pty Ltd
1800 466 834

Related links:

India – FSSAI issues new manual for analysing aflatoxin in food

FNB News

The apex food regulator, FSSAI, has issued a revised manual for methods of analysis of mycotoxins including aflatoxin in food. FSSAI has stated that the manual shall be used by the laboratories with immediate effect and this manual shall supersede the earlier manual on mycotoxins.

According to the FSSAI all food samples suspected of being contaminated with mycotoxins must be handled with extreme care, as aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic substances.

The manual talks about personal safety precautions, precautions during analysis  and handling of glassware for aflatoxin analysis.

Currently, the regulatory limits for mycotoxins in food as defined by the FSSAI include 15 microgram per kg in cereals, and cereal products, pulses, nuts and nuts for further processing. For Aflatoxins  the limit is prescribed at 10 microgram  per kg for ready to eat products, and dried figs, while 30 microgram per kg for spices and for oilseeds for further processing, the limit is set at 15 microgram per kg.

Similarly, the limit of Aflatoxin M1 in milk is 0.5 microgram per kg, Ochratoxin A in wheat, barley and rye is at 20 microgram per kg, and for Patulin, the limit is 50mcrogram per kg in apple juice and apple juice ingredients in other beverages.

Further, the limit for Deoxynivalenol  in wheat is fixed at 1000ppm.

Mycotoxins—toxic secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi—are biological in origin. Only a few of the thousands of mycotoxins present significant food safety challenges to the farm-to-fork food continuum. The natural fungal flora associated with food safety is dominated by three genres: Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium.

Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites and aflatoxin-producing fungi can contaminate crops in the field, at harvest, and during storage. Some of the more common crops susceptible to contamination with aflatoxins are cereals (e.g. maize, rice and wheat). The husk of these cereals are often used as animal feed.

Deoxynivalenol (DON) Deoxynivalenol (DON) also known as vomitoxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium fungi (Fusarium molds). This plant pathogens can cause scab mainly in wheat and barley etc., and damages cereals the most widely by contamination in the field. The main commodities affected are cereals such as wheat, rice, barley, oats and maize etc.

Patulin is a mycotoxin that is produced by certain species of Penicillium, Apergillus, and Byssochylamys molds that may grow on a variety of foods including fruit, grains, and cheese  while Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a naturally occurring foodborne mycotoxin found in a wide variety of agricultural commodities worldwide, ranging from cereal grains to dried fruits to wine and coffee.

Ireland – Recall of a Batch of Castlewood Farm Organic Apple Juice due to an Elevated Level of Patulin – Mycotoxin


Category 1: For Action
Alert Notification: 2020.95
Product: Castlewood Farm Organic Apple Juice; pack size 750ml
Batch Code: Best Before October 2021
Country Of Origin: Ireland


Castlewood Farm is recalling the above batch of its Organic Apple Juice due to an elevated level of patulin.  Patulin is a toxic contaminant produced naturally by a number of moulds found in and on fruit. Point-of-sale recall notices will be displayed in stores supplied with the implicated batch.

Nature Of Danger:

While patulin does not present an immediate risk to consumers, its presence is unacceptable and long-term consumption could cause an effect on human health. If consumed in large quantities over a period of time, patulin may cause damage to the immune system, nervous system and gastrointestinal tract.

Action Required:

Manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, caterers & retailers:

Retailers are requested to remove the implicated batch from sale and to display a point-of-sale recall notice in stores where the affected batch was sold.


Consumers are advised not to consume the implicated batch.

Apple Juice Label
Apple Juice Bottle

Belgium – Albert Heijn recall – Flevosap Appel (apple juice) – Patulin


In agreement with the AFSCA, Albert Heijn reminds consumers of the “Flevosap Appel” apple juice from the Flevosap brand, the date of minimum durability (DDM) of which is 30/09/2021. The product contains too high a patulin content (a mycotoxin). Consumption of this product may present a risk to health.

Albert Heijn asks his customers not to consume this product and to bring it back to the point of sale where it was purchased. The product will be refunded or changed there. Please contact a doctor if you have any health problem.

Product Description

• Product Category: Fruit Juice
• Product Name: Flevosap Appel
• Brand: Flevosap
• Date of Minimum Durability (DDM): 09/30/2021
• Batch number: L20232A
• Sales period: from 2/09/2020 to 09/10/2020 inclusive
• Type of packaging: glass bottle
• Weight: 1 l

The product was sold through Albert Heijn stores in Belgium.

For any further information , please contact Albert Heijn on 0800 777 05

RASFF Alert – Patulin – Mycotoxin – Apple Juice

European Food Alerts


patulin (200 µg/kg – ppb) in apple juice from the Netherlands in the Netherlands

RASFF Alert – Patulin – Apple Juice


RASFF – patulin (78.9 µg/kg – ppb) in apple juice from Serbia in Slovakia

Hong Kong – Not to consume a batch of bottled apple juice drink contaminated with patulin


Issue Date 29.5.2020
Source of Information Routine Surveillance Programme of the Centre for Food Safety
Food Product A bottled apple juice drink imported from Australia
Product Name and Description Product name: Cold Pressed Granny Smith Apple

Brand: Presha Fruit

Country of origin: Australia

Importer/Distributor: A.S. Watson Group (HK) Ltd.

Volume: 350ml per bottle

Best-before date: August 7, 2020

Reason For Issuing Alert
  • The test result showed that a sample collected from a supermarket in To Kwa Wan contained patulin at a level of 110 parts per billion (ppb), exceeding the action level of 50 ppb adopted by the CFS. The action level is the same as the standard of the Codex Alimentarius Commission on patulin in apple or apple juice.
  • Patulin mostly occurs in rotten apple and its products. Animal studies showed that ingesting high doses of patulin can induce liver, spleen and kidney damage, as well as toxicity to the immune system. For humans, nausea, gastrointestinal disturbances and vomiting have been reported.
Action Taken by the Centre for Food Safety
  • The CFS has informed the importer, PARKnSHOP (HK) Limited and distributor concerned of the irregularity. The importer and distributor have stopped sale and removed from shelves all batches of the affected product and initiated a recall of the affected batch of the product according to the CFS’ instruction.
  • The CFS will alert the trade, continue to follow up on the case and take appropriate action to safeguard food safety and public health. Investigation is ongoing.
Advice to the Trade Stop using or selling the affected products immediately if they possess them.
Advice to Consumers Not to consume the affected products.
Further Information The CFS press release

Members of the public may call the distributor’s hotline at 2606 8658 for enquiries about the recall during office hours.