Category Archives: Enterobacteriaceae

Research – Discerning microbial and quality attributes of differently slaughtered and dead poultry meat

Wiley Online


Globally, various methods of slaughtering have been practiced for the production of chicken meat. Among these methods, Halal slaughtering is implemented to produce Halal chicken. This method involves cutting the throat to bring the animal toward quick death without anguishing. Additionally, Halal slaughtering also favors rapid blood flow and more bleeding. Slaughtering methods are concorded with composition, quality, and microbial safety of meat, mediated by varied blood retention. Accordingly, the present work was aimed to explicate the effect of various slaughtering methods on quality and safety of broiler meat. Results revealed that significant compositional changes were observed in meat obtained from different slaughtering methods. Additionally, Halal‐slaughtered meat showed less nitrogenous losses (TVBN = 9.81 mgN/100 g), high water holding capacity (72.02%), better shear‐force value (21.37 g), and normal color (L* = 48.59, a* = 0.85, b* = 11.56) as compared to other slaughtering methods and dead meat. Additionally, Halal‐slaughtered meat contained less number of total plate count (4.28 log10CFU/g), Enterobacteriaceae count (3.12 log10CFU/g), Salmonella (2.74 log10CFU/g), and E. coli (2.78 log10CFU/g) counts in comparison with the other slaughtering methods and dead meat samples. Findings of the study indicate that slaughtering methods significantly influence the quality and microbial status of broiler meat.

Practical applications

In recent years, the international market for meat obtained from animals/birds slaughtered by using various religious methods has become important for supplying the desired meat globally. Although several studies have been conducted in this domain but most of the published data mainly emphasize the work related to the use of conventional slaughtering methods with limited comparison to religious slaughtering methods. However, some projects have also addressed the issues related to the impact of slaughtering methods on meat quality. Discussion related to religious slaughtering has been in progress around the world. Accordingly, the present study was conducted in this regard for providing some more information and facilitating the existing and upcoming discussions on the merits and demerits of several slaughtering methods with special reference to meat quality and safety.

RASFF Alert – Animal Feed- Enterobacteriaceae – Pet Food


RASFF – too high count of Enterobacteriaceae (between 70 and 645 CFU/g) in pet food from China in Sweden

Research – High levels of potentially harmful bacteria found in raw meat dog food products: study

Science Daily 260px-YellowLabradorLooking_new

Many raw meat dog food products contain high levels of bacteria that pose potential health risks to both animals and people, finds research published online in Vet Record.

This is a particular issue for infants, the elderly, and those with poor immunity, warn the researchers.

A raw meat-based diet has become increasingly popular for dogs in recent years, because it is seen as a ‘healthier’ and more ‘natural alternative’ to widely available commercial products.

But, unlike commercial feeds, raw meat products are not heat treated or freeze dried to pasteurise their content.

To try and gauge the levels of bacteria in these products, the researchers took samples from 60 packs of raw meat products, bought from a range of stores within a 200 km radius of their laboratory between March and September 2017.

The products, which were all intended for dogs, contained at least one of: uncooked meat; and edible bones and/or organs from cattle, chicken, lamb, turkeys, pigs, ducks, reindeer or salmon. Some of the products also included vegetables, vegetable fibre, and minerals.

All the products, made by 10 different manufacturers, originated from Sweden, Norway, Finland, Germany or England.

The samples were analysed for bacteria that could potentially pose a health risk to animals and people: Enterobacteriaceae species; Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella and Campylobacter species.

All 60 samples contained Enterobacteriaceae species, which are indicators of faecal contamination and hygiene standards.

Levels varied widely among the different manufacturers, and in some cases, among the different products from the same manufacturer.

But 31 (52%) of the samples contained levels that exceeded the maximum threshold set by European Union (EU) regulations of 5000 bacteria per gram.

Most of the species identified are not known to cause infection, apart from E coli, which was found in about a third of the samples.

C perfringens, another marker of faecal contamination and hygiene standards, was found in 18 samples (30%); two of the samples exceeded the maximum limits set by Swedish guidelines.

Salmonella and Campylobacter are zoonotic species of bacteria-capable of passing from animals to people and causing infection. EU regulations don’t permit Salmonella in any animal feed.

Salmonella species were found in 4 (7%) of the 60 samples, while Campylobacter species were found in three samples from three different manufacturers. This is a relatively low level, but possibly because Campylobacter species are very sensitive to freezing, say the researchers.

“It is most likely that Campylobacter was present in more samples before freezing, and that those samples in which Campylobacter was isolated contained very high levels of Campylobacter species before the freezing process, as some managed to survive the freezer,” they write.

The findings prompt the researchers to highlight the importance of careful storage, handling, and feeding of raw meat dog food products because of the potential health risks they pose.

They make several recommendations, designed to curb the risk of infection and antibiotic resistance. Raw meat dog food should be:

    • Kept frozen until use, and thawed at 10 degrees C

Kept separate from other food

Handled with separate kitchen equipment or with equipment that is washed thoroughly after use

Good hygiene is essential, they emphasise: bacteria in the juices from raw meat dog food can splash and spread to other foods and surfaces, and dogs can transfer potentially harmful and/or antibiotic resistant bacteria by ‘kissing’ faces immediately after eating.

Dogs shouldn’t be fed raw meat products while being treated with antibiotics as this could increase the risk of antibiotic resistance, they say.

“Dogs in families with infants, elderly people or immunocompromised individuals should also not be fed [raw meat products], as these groups are more susceptible to infections,” they warn.

British Veterinary Association Junior Vice President Daniella Dos Santos commented: “This research offers further compelling evidence to support vets’ concerns about the potential animal and public health risks associated with feeding pets a raw meat-based diet.

“Bacteria such as E coli and Salmonella can cause significant gastrointestinal disease in animals. Pets can also shed potentially harmful pathogens present in raw food into their environment, so there is a risk to owners both in handling the food and coming into contact with the animal. Pet owners who choose to feed a raw food diet should be aware of the potential health risks and take full precautions while storing and handling the food.

“BVA would also not recommend making a raw food diet at home without veterinary guidance due to the potential for nutritional deficiencies in homemade diets.

“We would advise any owner wanting to try a raw meat-based diet for their pet to first consult a veterinary surgeon.”

Story Source:

Materials provided by BMJNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Josefin Hellgren, Lovisa Staaf Hästö, Camilla Wikström, Lise-Lotte Fernström, Ingrid Hansson. Occurrence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Clostridium and Enterobacteriaceae in raw meat-based diets for dogsVeterinary Record, 2019; vetrec-2018-105199 DOI: 10.1136/vr.105199

Research – Effects of Package Atmosphere and Storage Conditions on Minimizing Risk of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Packaged Fresh Baby Spinach

Journal of Food Protection


Packaged fresh spinach has been associated with outbreaks of illness caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7. The purpose of this study was to assess the behavior of E. coli O157:H7 in packaged baby spinach in response to storage conditions of temperature and package atmosphere and including effects of inoculation level, spinach leaf damage (cut leaves), internalized or leaf surface contamination, exposure to hypochlorite sanitizer, and package size. Behavior of E. coli O157:H7 inoculated at 2 and 4 log CFU/g on spinach packaged in polymer bags composed of a two-layer laminate (polypropylene and polyethylene) and stored under atmospheres of 20% O2–3% CO2 and 0% O2–15% CO2 (aerobic and anaerobic, respectively) was assessed at 5, 7, 12, and 15°C for up to 14 days. Growth kinetics were calculated using DMFit software. Temperature decreases progressively diminished growth or survival of the pathogen, and an aerobic package atmosphere resulted in longer lag times (4 to 6 days) and lower population levels (0.2 to 1.4 log CFU/g) compared with the anaerobic atmosphere at 15°C. Internalized contamination, leaf cuts, or exposure to 100 ppm of hypochlorite did not result in changes in pathogen behavior compared with controls; however, a growth minimization trend consisting of longer lag times and lower population levels was repeatedly observed in the aerobic compared with the anaerobic package atmospheres. In contrast, growth of indigenous mesophiles and Enterobacteriaceae was unaffected by package atmosphere. Spinach stored at 5 to 7°C in two sizes (5 and 16 oz) of polyethylene terephthalate clamshell packages with ambient air atmospheres was more likely to progress to lower-oxygen conditions in 16-oz compared with 5-oz packages after 7 days of storage (P < 0.05). Practices to maintain aerobic conditions within the package, as well as storage of the package at low temperature, are ways to limit growth of E. coli O157:H7 in packaged spinach.

  • Cold aerobic conditions limited survival of E. coli O157:H7 in packaged spinach.

  • Low-oxygen atmosphere increased pathogen risk in temperature-abused packages.

  • Internalization, leaf cuts, and hypochlorite stress did not increase pathogen risk.

  • Large spinach packages trended toward lower-oxygen conditions more than small packages.

  • Maintaining cold aerobic conditions can limit pathogen risk in packaged spinach.

RASFF Alert – Animal Feed -Enterobacteriaceae – Pet Food


RASFF – too high count of Enterobacteriaceae (up to 1310 CFU/g) in pet food from China in Sweden


RASFF Alerts – Animal Feed -Enterobacteriaceae – Fish Meal


RASFF – Salmonella (presence /25g) and too high count of Enterobacteriaceae (170 CFU/g) in fishmeal from the United States in Germany

RASFF – too high count of Enterobacteriaceae (1300 CFU/g) in fish meal from Mauritania in Germany

Research – Detection of pathogenic bacteria and fungi on biometric surface of Automated Teller Machines located in Brazilian public hospital

Academic Journals

The Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is used by millions of people as an alternative to gain time instead of using traditional banking systems in Brazil and ATMs are frequently localized in São Paulo city around the hospitals. However, ATMs might be potential devices for microbial accumulation and transmission in the community. The objective of the present study was to evaluate forty-two ATMs, in two hospital areas (A and B) in São Paulo city for the presence of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Samples were collected from biometric surfaces of the devices with sterile cotton swabs soaked in the sterile physiologic saline and were cultured on selective agar for yeasts, filamentous fungi and bacteria in the period of January 2017 to March 2018. Complementary biochemical tests were applied to confirm the bacteria and the taxonomic identification of molds was performed considering the morphological characteristics by microscopic observation. Our results suggest that the biometric surfaces in ATMs is an important environmental source of microbes, once that the genera Staphylococcus was predominant in all agencies of both hospital areas (83.3%), following of Streptococcus spp. (57%) and Enterococcus spp. (50%). The group of Enterobacteriaceae (Gram negative bacilli) were most frequent in both areas studied (57%). Seven different fungi genera were isolated from ATMs in area A and B and yeasts were predominant in all samples collected (47%), comparing with filamentous fungi (23%). We conclude that biometric ATM surfaces play an important role in microbial transmission in hospital settings, and healthcare professionals should wash and disinfect their hands carefully before touching patients.