Enterobacteriaceae in sheep meal from New Zealand in Belgium
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Enterobacteriaceae in sheep meal from New Zealand in Belgium
Sliced ready-to-eat meat products packaged under modified atmospheres are often marketed since they cover consumer demands. The slicing process could be a potential risk for consumers since contamination with Listeria monocytogenes could occur during this stage. The current study evaluated the behavior of L. monocytogenes and other microorganisms in commercial sliced Riojano chorizo. This meat product was sliced and inoculated with L. monocytogenes (3.5 log CFU/g) before packaging under different atmospheres (air, vacuum, 100% N2, 20% CO2/80% N2 and 40% CO2/60% N2) and stored at 4 °C for up to 60 days. Samples were taken on days 0, 7, 21, 28 and 60 of storage. L. monocytogenes, mesophiles, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcaceae, molds and yeast counts were evaluated. Additionally, water activity, humidity and pH were determined. L. monocytogenes counts decreased in inoculated sliced chorizo during storage. Packaging conditions and day of storage influenced microbial counts. After 60 days, a significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) in the initial Listeria contamination levels (3.5. log CFU/g) between 1.1 and 1.46 logarithmic units was achieved in the sausages packaged in modified atmosphere. The highest reductions were observed in slices packaged in 40% CO2/60% N2 after 60 days of storage at 4 °C. View Full-Text
The aim of this study was to determine the survival kinetics of Salmonella spp. in unripened, fresh raw milk cheese during storage at 5, 15 and 25 °C. Microbiological (coliforms and E. coli, S. thermophilus, Lactococcus sp., total microbial count and Enterobacteriaceae) and physicochemical (pH and aw) characteristics were also determined. Two primary models were used to estimate the kinetic parameters of Salmonella spp., namely Weibull and Baranyi and Roberts (no lag) models. Additionally, goodness-of-fit of the primary models was assessed by calculating the R-Square and mean square error. Salmonella spp. growth in the unripened raw milk cheese was inhibited during storage, but nevertheless bacteria survived at 5 °C for 33 days (2.5 log cfu/g) and 15 °C for 18 days (1.8 log cfu/g). A decrease in the number of Salmonella spp. populations from an initial concentration 6.6 log cfu/g to below a detection limit was observed at 25 °C after 7 days of storage of contaminated cheese samples. It was concluded that the storage temperature significantly influenced the inactivation rate of Salmonella spp. in fresh raw milk cheese and proceeded faster at 25 °C compared to remaining storage temperatures.
In the present work, the effect of processing of dry-cured fermented sausage “salchichón” spiked with the selected Lactobacillus sakei 205 was challenge-tested with low and high levels of L. monocytogenes. The evolution of the natural microbial population throughout the “salchichón” ripening was also evaluated. For this, a total of 150 “salchichón” were elaborated and divided into six equal cases which were inoculated with different levels of L. monocytogenes, and L. sakei 205. Afterwards, sausages were ripened for 90 days according to a typical industrial process. Moisture content (%) and water activity (aw) decreased throughout the ripening up to values around 26% and 0.78, respectively. No differences for moisture content, aw, pH, NaCl and nitrite concentration were observed between the analyzed cases. Lactic acid bacteria counts in the L. sakei 205 inoculated cases were always higher than 6 log CFU g−1 during ripening. Enterobacteriaceae counts were reduced during ripening until non-detectable levels at the end of processing. Reductions in L. monocytogenes counts ranged from 1.6 to 2.2 log CFU g−1; therefore, the processing of “salchichón” itself did not allow the growth of this pathogen. Reduction in L. monocytogenes was significantly higher in the cases inoculated with L. sakei 205. View Full-Text
Animal petting zoos and farm fairs provide the opportunity for children and adults to interact with animals, but contact with animals carries a risk of exposure to zoonotic pathogens and antimicrobial‐resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella, extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase (ESBL)‐producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animal faeces from six animal petting zoos and one farm fair in Switzerland. Furthermore, hygiene facilities on the venues were evaluated. Of 163 faecal samples, 75 contained stx1, stx2 or stx1/stx2 genes, indicating the presence of STEC. Samples included faeces from sika deer (100%), sheep (92%), goats (88%), mouflons (80%), camels (62%), llamas (50%), yaks (50%), pigs (29%) and donkeys (6%), whereas no stx genes were isolated from faeces of calves, guinea pigs, hens, ostriches, ponies, zebras or zebus. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Stourbridge (S. Stourbridge) was detected in faecal samples from camels. A total of four ESBL‐producing E. coli strains were isolated from faeces of goats, camels and pigs. PCR and sequencing identified the presence of blaCTX‐M‐15 in three and blaCTX‐M‐65 in one E. coli. Antimicrobial resistance profiling using the disk diffusion method revealed two multidrug‐resistant (MDR) E. coli with resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and azithromycin, all of which are critically important drugs for human medicine. Multilocus sequence typing identified E. coli ST162, E. coli ST2179, extraintestinal high‐risk E. coli ST410 and E. coli ST4553, which belongs to the emerging extraintestinal clonal complex (CC) 648. No MRSA was detected. On all animal petting venues, there were inadequacies with regard to access to hygiene information and handwashing hygiene facilities. This study provides data that underscore the importance of hygiene measures to minimize the risk of transmission of zoonotic pathogens and MDR, ESBL‐producing E. coli to visitors of animal petting venues.
Cold-smoked salmon is a widely consumed ready-to-eat seafood product that is a fragile commodity with a long shelf-life. The microbial ecology of cold-smoked salmon during its shelf-life is well known. However, to our knowledge, no study on the microbial ecology of cold-smoked salmon using next-generation sequencing has yet been undertaken. In this study, cold-smoked salmon microbiotas were investigated using a polyphasic approach composed of cultivable methods, V3—V4 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding and chemical analyses. Forty-five cold-smoked salmon products processed in three different factories were analyzed. The metabarcoding approach highlighted 12 dominant genera previously reported as fish spoilers: Firmicutes Staphylococcus, Carnobacterium, Lactobacillus, β-Proteobacteria Photobacterium, Vibrio, Aliivibrio, Salinivibrio, Enterobacteriaceae Serratia,Pantoea, γ-Proteobacteria Psychrobacter, Shewanella and Pseudomonas. Specific operational taxonomic units were identified during the 28-day storage study period. Operational taxonomic units specific to the processing environment were also identified. Although the 45 cold-smoked salmon products shared a core microbiota, a processing plant signature was found. This suggest that the bacterial communities of cold-smoked salmon products are impacted by the processing environment, and this environment could have a negative effect on product quality. The use of a polyphasic approach for seafood products and food processing environments could provide better insights into residential bacteria dynamics and their impact on food safety and quality. View Full-Text
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too high count of Enterobacteriaceae (60 CFU/g) in dog chews from Hong Kong in Belgium
Resistance to last resort antibiotics in bacteria is an emerging threat to human and animal health. It is important to identify the source of these antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria that are resistant to clinically important antibiotics and evaluate their potential transfer among bacteria. The objectives of this study were to (i) detect bacteria resistant to colistin, carbapenems, and β-lactams in commercial poultry farms, (ii) characterize phylogenetic and virulence markers of E. coli isolates to potentiate virulence risk, and (iii) assess potential transfer of AMR from these isolates via conjugation. Ceca contents from laying hens from conventional cage (CC) and cage-free (CF) farms at three maturity stages were randomly sampled and screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA), and colistin resistant Escherichia coli (CRE) using CHROMagar™ selective media. We found a wide-spread abundance of CRE in both CC and CF hens across all three maturity stages. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups B2 and D, as well as plasmidic virulence markers iss and iutA, were widely associated with AMR E. coli isolates. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were uniquely detected in the early lay period of both CC and CF, while multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter were found in peak and late lay periods of both CC and CF. CRA was detected in CF hens only. blaCMY was detected in ESBL-producing E. coli in CC and CF and MDR Acinetobacter spp. in CC. Finally, the blaCMY was shown to be transferrable via an IncK/B plasmid in CC. The presence of MDR to the last-resort antibiotics that are transferable between bacteria in food-producing animals is alarming and warrants studies to develop strategies for their mitigation in the environment. View Full-Text