Category Archives: Campylobacter jejuni

RASFF Alert – Campylobacter – Chicken Fillet

RASFF

Salmonella and Campylobacter in chicken fillet from Hungary in Austria

Research – Molecular Epidemiological Evidence Implicates Cattle as a Primary Reservoir of Campylobacter jejuni Infecting People via Contaminated Chickens

MDPI

CDC Campy

The study aimed to determine the relative contribution of cattle to the burden of illness in a model agroecosystem with high rates of human campylobacteriosis (≥ 115 cases/100 K), and high densities of cattle, including large numbers of cattle housed in confined feeding operations (i.e., in southwestern Alberta, Canada).
To accomplish this, a large-scale molecular epidemiological analysis of Campylobacter jejuni circulating within the study location was completed. In excess of 8000 isolates of C. jejuni from people (n = 2548 isolates), chickens (n = 1849 isolates), cattle (n = 2921 isolates), and water (n = 771 isolates) were subtyped.
In contrast to previous studies, the source attribution estimates of clinical cases attributable to cattle vastly exceeded those attributed to chicken (i.e., three- to six-fold). Moreover, cattle were often colonized by C. jejuni (51%) and shed the bacterium in their feces.
A large proportion of study isolates were found in subtypes primarily associated with cattle (46%), including subtypes infecting people and those associated with chickens (19%). The implication of cattle as a primary amplifying reservoir of C. jejuni subtypes in circulation in the study location is supported by the strong cattle association with subtypes that were found in chickens and in people, a lack of evidence indicating the foodborne transmission of C. jejuni from beef and dairy, and the large number of cattle and the substantial quantities of untreated manure containing C. jejuni cells.
Importantly, the evidence implicated cattle as a source of C. jejuni infecting people through a transmission pathway from cattle to people via the consumption of chicken. This has implications for reducing the burden of campylobacteriosis in the study location and elsewhere. View Full-Text

Research team work on a rapid test for foodborne pathogens in poultry

Poultry World

A research team at Michigan State University will use a grant from the USDA to develop a rapid biosensor test for foodborne pathogens. The rapid test will be used onsite at poultry farms and processing facilities to inspect large samples for Salmonella and Campylobacter.

The US$769,000 grant was received from the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), and Professor Evangelyn Alocilja, who is in the MSU Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, is leading the project. She is an expert in her field and in rapid biosensing diagnostics for infectious and antimicrobial-resistant diseases, having developed such tests for tuberculosis, dengue and Covid-19.

Poultry products are one of the most common sources of infection

Alocilja says that studies have shown poultry products are one of the most common sources of infection due to bacterial contamination from farm production practices and processing equipment. In the US, the economic burden of Salmonella and Campylobacter from all sources exceeded US$6 billion in 2018, according to the USDA Economic Research Service.

Research – Influence of commercial laying hen housing systems on the incidence and identification of Salmonella and Campylobacter

Science Direct

Foodborne Pathogen

Abstract

The housing of laying hens is important for social, industrial, and regulatory aspects. Many studies have compared hen housing systems on the research farm, but few have fully examined commercial housing systems and management strategies. The current study compared hens housed in commercial cage-free aviary, conventional cage, and enriched colony cage systems. Environmental and eggshell pool samples were collected from selected cages/segments of the housing systems throughout the production cycle and monitored for Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence. At 77 wk of age, 120 hens per housing system were examined for Salmonella and Campylobacter colonization in the: adrenal glands, spleen, ceca, follicles, and upper reproductive tract. All isolates detected from environmental swabs, eggshell pools, and tissues were identified for serotype. Two predominant Salmonella were detected in all samples: S. Braenderup and S. Kentucky. Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni were the only Campylobacter detected in the flocks. Across all housing systems, approximately 7% of hens were colonized with Salmonella, whereas > 90% were colonized with CampylobacterSalmonella Braenderup was the isolate most frequently detected in environmental swabs (P < 0.0001) and housing system impacted Salmonella spp. shedding (P < 0.0001). Campylobacter jejuni was the isolate most frequently found in environmental swabs (P < 0.01), while housing system impacted the prevalence of C. coli and jejuni in ceca (P < 0.0001). The results of this study provide a greater understanding of the impact of hen housing systems on hen health and product safety. Additionally, producers and academia can utilize the findings to make informed decisions on hen housing and management strategies to enhance hen health and food safety.

RASFF Alert – Campylobacter – Frozen Duck Breast

RASFF

Campylobacter jejuni in frozen duck breast from the Czech Republic in Germany

Research – Campylobacter jejuni in Poultry: Pathogenesis and Control Strategies

MDPI

C. jejuni is the leading cause of human foodborne illness associated with poultry, beef, and pork consumption. C. jejuni is highly prevalent in commercial poultry farms, where horizontal transmission from the environment is considered to be the primary source of C. jejuni. As an enteric pathogen, C. jejuni expresses virulence factors regulated by a two-component system that mediates C. jejuni’s ability to survive in the host. C. jejuni survives and reproduces in the avian intestinal mucus. The avian intestinal mucus is highly sulfated and sialylated compared with the human mucus modulating C. jejuni pathogenicity into a near commensal bacteria in poultry. Birds are usually infected from two to four weeks of age and remain colonized until they reach market age. A small dose of C. jejuni (around 35 CFU/mL) is sufficient for successful bird colonization. In the U.S., where chickens are raised under antibiotic-free environments, additional strategies are required to reduce C. jejuni prevalence on broilers farms. Strict biosecurity measures can decrease C. jejuni prevalence by more than 50% in broilers at market age. Vaccination and probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, organic acids, bacteriophages, bacteriocins, and quorum sensing inhibitors supplementation can improve gut health and competitively exclude C. jejuni load in broilers. Most of the mentioned strategies showed promising results; however, they are not fully implemented in poultry production. Current knowledge on C. jejuni’s morphology, source of transmission, pathogenesis in poultry, and available preharvest strategies to decrease C. jejuni colonization in broilers are addressed in this review

USA – Health Department Probing Possible Foodborne Illness Outbreak In Brooklyn

Patch

Campylobacter kswfoodworld

City health officials are investigating a potential outbreak of campylobacter, a bacterial infection that causes flu-like stomach symptoms.

City health officials are investigating a potential outbreak in Brooklyn of campylobacter, a bacterial infection that causes flu-like stomach symptoms.

Campylobacter is a gastrointestinal bug that can come from eating raw or undercooked poultry or something that comes in contact with it, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. People can also get it from contact with animals that carry the bacteria and by drinking contaminated water.

In Brooklyn, health officials said approximately 50 cases have been reported in the borough since the start of the month. A spokesperson for the city’s Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) declined to detail which neighborhoods have seen the spike.

USA – CDFA ANNOUNCES RECALL OF RAW GOAT MILK PRODUCED AT VALLEY MILK SIMPLY BOTTLED OF STANISLAUS COUNTY

CDFA

SACRAMENTO, October 21, 2022 – Raw goat milk produced and packaged by Valley Milk Simply Bottled of Stanislaus County is the subject of a statewide recall and quarantine order announced by California State Veterinarian Dr. Annette Jones.  The quarantine order came following the confirmed detection of the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni in the farm’s packaged raw whole goat milk sampled and tested by the California Department of Food and Agriculture.

The order applies to “Valley Milk Simply Bottled Raw Goat Milk” and “DESI MILK Raw Goat Milk” distributed in half-gallon (64 oz) plastic jugs with a code date marked on the container of OCT 21 2022 through OCT 31 2022.

Consumers are strongly urged to dispose of any product remaining in their refrigerators, and retailers are to pull the product immediately from their shelves. The current order does not include the farm’s raw cow milk.

CDFA found the campylobacter bacteria in a routine sample collected at the Valley Milk Simply Bottled production and packaging facility.  No illnesses have been reported.

Symptoms of campylobacteriosis include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.  Most people with camplylobacteriosis recover completely.  Illness usually occurs 2 to 5 days after exposure to campylobacter and lasts about a week.  The illness is usually mild and some people with campylobacteriosis have no symptoms at all.  However, in some persons with compromised immune systems, it can cause a serious, life-threatening infection.  A small percentage of people may have joint pain and swelling after infection.  In addition, a rare disease called Guillian-Barre syndrome that causes weakness and paralysis can occur several weeks after the initial illness.

Research – Quantitative Determination Of Campylobacter On Broilers Along 22 UK Processing Lines, To Identify Potential Process Control Points and Cross-contamination From Colonized To Uncolonized Flocks

Journal of Food Protection

As part of a program to reduce numbers of the human pathogen Campylobacter on retail chickens twenty-two broiler processing lines, representing over 90% of United Kingdom (UK) production, were characterized by enumerating Campylobacter on pooled neck skins after the exsanguination, scalding, defeathering, evisceration, crop removal, inside-outside washing, and air-chilling stages of processing.  Sixteen of the processing lines investigated showed significant (p<0.05) reductions in Campylobacter numbers because of carcass scalding.  However, in all these lines, the following defeathering stage caused a significant increase in Campylobacter contamination that effectively negated the reductions caused by scalding.  On four processing lines, primary chilling also caused a significant reduction in numbers of Campylobacter.  On three lines, there was a significant microbiological benefit from inside-outside (I/O) washing.  The stages where Campylobacter numbers were reduced require further investigations to determine the specific mechanisms responsible so that the observed pathogen reductions can be optimized, and more widely implemented. The transfer of up to 4 log cfu Campylobacter per gram of neck skin from a colonized flock to a following uncolonized flock was observed.  The cross contamination was substantial and still detectable after 5,000 carcasses from an uncolonized flock had been processed.  The numbers of Campylobacter recovered from the uncolonized flocks were highest on the first of the uncolonized birds to pass along the line and, in general, numbers fell as more uncolonized birds were processed.  Air sampling recovered low numbers at the processing stages monitored, indicating that airborne transmission was unlikely to be the primary transfer mechanism operating for cross-contamination between flocks.

USA – CDFA ANNOUNCES RECALL OF RAW SHEEP MILK PRODUCED AT VALLEY MILK SIMPLY BOTTLED OF STANISLAUS COUNTY- Campylobacter

CDFA

campy2

SACRAMENTO, September 27, 2022 – Raw sheep milk produced and packaged by Valley Milk Simply Bottled of Stanislaus County is the subject of a statewide recall and quarantine order announced by California State Veterinarian Dr. Annette Jones.  The quarantine order came following the confirmed detection of the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni in the farm’s packaged raw whole sheep milk sampled and tested by the California Department of Food and Agriculture.

The raw sheep milk is distributed in half-gallon (64 oz) plastic jugs and labeled as “Valley Milk Simply Bottled Raw Sheep Milk”. The recall order applies to products marked on the container with expiration code dates of SEP 28 2022 through OCT 01 2022.

Consumers are strongly urged to dispose of any product remaining in their refrigerators.  The current order does not include the farm’s raw cow milk or raw goat milk.

CDFA found the campylobacter bacteria in a routine sample collected at the Valley Milk Simply Bottled production and packaging facility.  No illnesses have been reported.