Category Archives: Campylobacter jejuni

Research – New NARMS report shows rising resistance in Salmonella, Campylobacter

CIDRAP

The findings come from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Systems (NARMS) 2019 Integrated Summary, which combines data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The report provides a snapshot of resistance patterns found in bacteria isolated from humans, animals, raw meats from retail outlets (chicken, ground turkey, ground beef, and pork chops), and meat and poultry product samples collected at slaughtering facilities.

In addition to Salmonella, which causes an estimated 1.35 million illnesses and 26,500 hospitalizations each year, the NARMS report also includes resistance data on Campylobacter (1.5 million illnesses and 19,500 hospitalizations), Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus. NARMS monitors these bacteria to detect emerging resistance patterns to the antibiotics that are most important to human medicine, multidrug resistance, and specific resistance genes.

Research – A restatement of the natural science evidence base regarding the source, spread and control of Campylobacter species causing human disease

Royal Society Publishing

CDC Campy

Abstract

Food poisoning caused by Campylobacter (campylobacteriosis) is the most prevalent bacterial disease associated with the consumption of poultry, beef, lamb and pork meat and unpasteurized dairy products. A variety of livestock industry, food chain and public health interventions have been implemented or proposed to reduce disease prevalence, some of which entail costs for producers and retailers. This paper describes a project that set out to summarize the natural science evidence base relevant to campylobacteriosis control in as policy-neutral terms as possible. A series of evidence statements are listed and categorized according to the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material.

Research – Occurrence and Multidrug Resistance of Campylobacter in Chicken Meat from Different Production Systems

MDPI

Campylobacter kswfoodworld

Campylobacter is the leading bacterial cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and poultry remains the primary vehicle of its transmission to humans. Due to the rapid increase in antibiotic resistance among Campylobacter strains, the World Health Organization (WHO) added Campylobacter fluoroquinolone resistance to the WHO list of antibiotic-resistant “priority pathogens”. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. in meat samples from chickens reared in different production systems: (a) conventional, (b) free-range and (c) backyard farming. Campylobacter spp. was detected in all samples from conventionally reared and free-range broilers and in 72.7% of backyard chicken samples. Levels of contamination were on average 2.7 × 103 colony forming units (CFU)/g, 4.4 × 102 CFU/g and 4.2 × 104 CFU/g in conventionally reared, free-range and backyard chickens, respectively. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were the only species isolated. Distribution of these species does not seem to be affected by the production system. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter isolates exhibiting resistance to at least one antimicrobial was 98.4%. All the C. coli isolates showed resistance to ciprofloxacin and to nalidixic acid, and 79.5 and 97.4% to ampicillin and tetracycline, respectively. In total, 96.2% of C. jejuni isolates displayed a resistant phenotype to ciprofloxacin and to nalidixic acid, and 92.3% to ampicillin and tetracycline. Of the 130 Campylobacter isolates tested, 97.7% were classified as multidrug resistant (MDR).

USA – Several people sickened by bacterial outbreak in Sanders County – Campylobacter

KPAX

The source of a bacterial outbreak in Sanders County that caused several people to become ill has been confirmed.

State and county officials recently notified the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) that the Kennedy Creek water box has been associated with a Campylobacter outbreak.

The Montana Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) has labelled this untreated water as a health concern and advised MDT to close off public access to the water.

After Sanders County Public Health officials confirmed several cases of infection from Campylobacter bacteria, the water from the untreated creek was tested and the presence of this bacteria was confirmed, according to MDT.

Over 20 people have tested positive for the bacterial infection and have reported diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and fever after drinking water from the location.

Research – A restatement of the natural science evidence base regarding the source, spread and control of Campylobacter species causing human disease

Royal Society Publishing

Abstract

Food poisoning caused by Campylobacter (campylobacteriosis) is the most prevalent bacterial disease associated with the consumption of poultry, beef, lamb and pork meat and unpasteurized dairy products. A variety of livestock industry, food chain and public health interventions have been implemented or proposed to reduce disease prevalence, some of which entail costs for producers and retailers. This paper describes a project that set out to summarize the natural science evidence base relevant to campylobacteriosis control in as policy-neutral terms as possible. A series of evidence statements are listed and categorized according to the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material.

Research – Research Note Survival of Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes and Temperature Change in Low-temperature–Long-time-cooked Chicken Meat 

Journal of Food Protection

Low-temperature­–long-time (LT–LT) cooking, also known as sous vide cooking, in which meat is sealed in a bag and cooked in hot water at a relatively low-temperature of around 60°C, increased in popularity; indeed, home-use low-temperature cookers are now commercially available. However, after LT–LT cooking, if even a small number of foodborne bacteria remain, they could cause infection and foodborne illnesses. Therefore, in the present study, the aim was to determine the appropriate LT–LT cooking methods for chicken by assessing temperature changes and studying the bacteria in LT–LT-cooked chicken meat. At set cooking temperatures of 60°C and 65°C, the temperatures were measured at the surface and in the centers of single- and double-layer samples of 300-g chicken breast meat. The time required to reach 50°C were 5–14 min at the surface, 25 min in the center of the single-layer sample, and 33–35 min in the center of the double-layer sample. The time taken to reach 50°C was fastest in SF followed by SG and DB (P < 0.05). When the meat was LT–LT cooked at 60°C and 65°C for 60 min, color changes in the meat and heating of the meat were observed all the way to the interior. Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella O7 and Listeria monocytogenes were inoculated into chicken breasts, which were then cooked at set temperatures of 60°C and 65°C for 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Campylobacter jejuni survived for up to 30 min of cooking, Salmonella O7 survived for up to 60 min of cooking at 60°C and 30 min at 65°C, and L. monocytogenes survived for up to 90 min of cooking at 60°C and 60 min at 65°C. Thus, to prevent infection and illness caused by the three tested bacteria species, LT–LT cooking for 120 min at 60°C and 90 min at 65°C is recommended.

Research – Decontamination of Pathogenic and Spoilage Bacteria on Pork and Chicken Meat by Liquid Plasma Immersion

MDPI

In this research, we aimed to reduce the bacterial loads of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coliCampylobacter jejuniStaphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in pork and chicken meat with skin by applying cold plasma in a liquid state or liquid plasma. The results showed reductions in S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, E. coli, and C. jejuni on the surface of pork and chicken meat after 15 min of liquid plasma treatment on days 0, 3, 7, and 10. However, the efficacy of the reduction in S. aureus was lower after day 3 of the experiment. Moreover, P. aeruginosa could not be inactivated under the same experimental conditions. The microbial decontamination with liquid plasma did not significantly reduce the microbial load, except for C. jejuni, compared with water immersion. When compared with a control group, the pH value and water activity of pork and chicken samples treated with liquid plasma were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05), with a downward trend that was similar to those of the control and water groups. Moreover, the redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values (CIELAB) of the meat decreased. Although the liquid plasma group resulted in an increase in the lightness (L*) values of the pork samples, these values did not significantly change in the chicken samples. This study demonstrated the efficacy of liquid plasma at reducing S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, E. coliC. jejuni, and S. aureus on the surface of pork and chicken meat during three days of storage at 4–6 °C with minimal undesirable meat characteristics. View Full-Text

Research – Monitoring AMR in Campylobacter jejuni from Italy in the last 10 years (2011–2021): Microbiological and WGS data risk assessment

EFSA

Campylobacter jejuni is considered as the main pathogen in human food‐borne outbreaks worldwide. Over the past years, several studies have reported antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in C. jejuni strains. In Europe, the official monitoring of AMR comprises the testing of Campylobacter spp. from food‐producing animals because this microorganism is responsible for human infections and usually predominant in poultry. Food‐producing animals are considered to be a major source of campylobacteriosis through contamination of food products. Concerns are growing due to the current classification of C. jejuni by the WHO as a ‘high priority pathogen’ due to the emergence of resistance to multiple drugs such as those belonging to the fluoroquinolones, macrolides and other classes, which limits the treatment alternatives. Knowledge about the contributions of different food sources to gastrointestinal disease is fundamental to prioritise food safety interventions and to establish proper control strategies. Assessing the genetic diversity among Campylobacter species is essential to the understanding of their epidemiology and population structure. Using a population genetic approach and grouping the isolates into sequence types within different clonal complexes, it is possible to investigate the source of the human cases. The work programme was aimed for the fellow to assess the AMR of C. jejuni isolated from humans, poultry and birds from wild and urban Italian habitats. Given the public health concern represented by resistant pathogens in food‐producing animals and the paucity of data about this topic in Italy, the aim was to identify correlations between phenotypic and genotypic AMR and comparing the origin of the isolates. The work programme allowed the fellow to acquire knowledge, skills and competencies on the web‐based tools used by IZSAM to process the NGS data and perform bioinformatics analyses for the identification of epidemiological clusters, the study of AMR patterns in C. jejuni isolates, and the assessment of the human exposure to such AMR pathogens. Furthermore, the fellow became able to transfer the acquired knowledge through innovative web‐based didactical tools applied to WGS and clustering of specific food‐borne pathogens, with particular reference to C. jejuni. To achieve this objective, 2,734 C. jejuni strains isolated from domestic and wild animals and humans, during the period 2011–2021 were analysed. The resistance phenotypes of the isolates were determined using the microdilution method with EUCAST breakpoints, for the following antibiotics: nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, tetracycline. The data were complemented by WGS data for each strain, uploaded in the Italian information system for the collection and analysis of complete genome sequence of pathogens isolated from animal, food and environment (GENPAT) developed and maintained at IZSAM; information like clonal complex and sequence type to understand the phylogenetical distance between strains according to their origins were also considered. This work underlines that a better knowledge of the resistance levels of C. jejuni is necessary, and mandatory monitoring of Campylobacter species in the different animal productions is strongly suggested.

Research – What is Campylobacter gastroenteritis?

Medical News Today

See full article at the link above

Campylobacter gastroenteritis is a common intestinal infection that occurs due to Campylobacter bacteria.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Campylobacter bacteria are the most common bacterial cause of diarrheal illness, affecting 1.5 million people in the United States each year.

The bacteria may be present in the meat or milk of an animal or pass to water or produce through feces or contact with infected meat.

Campylobacter gastroenteritis can lead to symptoms such as:

The World Health Organization (WHO)states that infections are typically mild and will subside on their own. However, young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems have a higher risk of developing severe illness.

Causes

Campylobacter gastroenteritis occurs when a person comes into contact with Campylobacter bacteria.

The WHO notes that Campylobacter bacteria are present in many animals, including:

  • poultry
  • pigs
  • cattle
  • sheep
  • ostriches
  • shellfish

They can also be present in pets, such as cats and dogs.

The main route of exposure is through eating undercooked meat. When an animal is slaughtered, the bacteria from the feces can contaminate the meat.

People can also come into contact with the bacteria via:

  • raw or unpasteurized milk
  • contaminated water and ice
  • unwashed fruits and vegetables

Milk can become contaminated when Campylobacter bacteria are present in the udder. Fruits and vegetables can become contaminated if they come into contact with water or soil that contains animal feces.

Rarely, the condition is a result of exposure to contaminated water during recreation such as swimming. Lakes and streams can become contaminated with animal faeces.

RASFF Alert – Campylobacter – Pigeon Meat

RASFF

Campylobacter in pigeon from France in Germany