Category Archives: Listeria

RASFF Alert – Listeria monocytogenes – Raw Sheeps Milk

European Food Alerts

RASFF

Listeria monocytogenes (4500 CFU/g) in cheese from raw sheep’s milk from Spain in Spain

raw

USA – FDA Enforcement Reports – Week April 14th

FDA

Class I Food Event
Event ID:
87464
Product Type:
Food
Status:
Ongoing
Date Terminated:
Recall Initiation Date:
03/02/2021
Voluntary / Mandated:
Voluntary: Firm initiated
Center Classification Date:
04/07/2021
Initial Firm Notification of Consignee or Public:
Telephone
Recalling Firm:
Canteen Inc. dba MG Foods, Inc.
1907 Gateway Blvd
Charlotte NC United States
Distribution Pattern:
Product was shipped to the following states: GA, NC, SC & WV.

Associated Products

Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Club on Toast, Net Wt. 10.3oz (292g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF0930
Product Quantity:
736 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0393-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Club Panini, Net Wt. 8.50oz (241g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF9844
Product Quantity:
67 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0394-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Club Sub with Italian Dressing, Net Wt. 9.14oz (259g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF9100
Product Quantity:
34 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0395-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Deluxe Triple Decker Club, Net Wt. 12.17 oz (345g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF9719
Product Quantity:
379 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0396-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Ham & Turkey Combo, Net Wt. 5.85oz (168g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF3054 & MGF23054
Product Quantity:
1,186 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0397-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/09/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Ham & Turkey Combo on 12 Grain, Net Wt. 7.20oz (204g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF6011
Product Quantity:
165 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0398-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/09/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Large Turkey & Cheese Sub, Net Wt. 6.74oz (191g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF1002
Product Quantity:
278 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0399-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/09/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Market Club, Net Wt. 11.85oz (336g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF9800
Product Quantity:
75 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0400-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Shaved Turkey & Cheese, Net Wt. 4.55oz (129g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MG5571 & MGF25571
Product Quantity:
654 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0401-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/09/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Turkey & Cheddar Club on Wheat, Net Wt. 10.02oz (284g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF9710
Product Quantity:
34 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0402-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Turkey & Cheese Cut, Net Wt. 6.56oz (186g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF0596
Product Quantity:
566 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0403-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/09/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Turkey & Cheese Hoagie, Net Wt. 6.35oz (180g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF0597
Product Quantity:
432 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0404-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/09/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Turkey & Sundried Tomato Mayo Pita, Net Wt. 8.29oz (235g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF9806
Product Quantity:
6 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0405-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Turkey & Swiss on Honey Brown Sub Roll, Net Wt. 9.42oz (267g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF9703
Product Quantity:
58 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0406-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Turkey & Swiss on Kaiser, Net Wt. 8.11oz (230g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF9712
Product Quantity:
144 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0407-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Turkey & Swiss on Wheat, Net Wt. 3.9oz (112g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF0283
Product Quantity:
319 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0408-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/09/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Turkey & Swiss on Whole Wheat Roll, Net Wt. 5.22oz (148g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF0854
Product Quantity:
195 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0409-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/09/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Turkey Club Croissant, Net Wt. 7.94oz (225g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF9103
Product Quantity:
116 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0410-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Turkey Melt Croissant, Net Wt. 6.7oz (190g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF3032
Product Quantity:
602 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0411-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/09/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Turkey Swiss & Cranberry Mayo Pita, Net Wt. 9oz (255g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF9804
Product Quantity:
6 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0412-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Tuscan Turkey Ciabatta, Net Wt. 9.18 oz (264g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF9810
Product Quantity:
67 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0413-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
MG Foods CHEDDAR HALF AND HALF TURKEY & CHEDAR WITH TOMATO AIOLI AND A SIDE OF SPRING MIX, Net Wt. 7.7oz (218g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC 1 00000 50069 9
Product Quantity:
91 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0414-2021
Code Information:
EXP 03/09/21
 
Product Description:
MG Foods THE CLUB SUB ROAST BEEF, TURKEY, HAM & BABY SWISS WITH GOLDEN ITALIAN DRESSING ON MULTI-GRAIN BATARD, Net Wt. 8.5oz (242g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC 1 00000 50002 6
Product Quantity:
28 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0415-2021
Code Information:
EXP 03/09/21
 
Product Description:
MG Foods TURKEY & CHEDDAR BLT ON TOASTED WHEAT BREAD, Net Wt. 6.9oz (196g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC 1 00000 50068 2
Product Quantity:
402 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0416-2021
Code Information:
EXP 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
MG Foods TURKEY & PEPPERJACK ROASTED TURKEY, PEPPERJACK, CHIPOTLE MAYO, LETTUCE AND TOMATO ON A FRESH SUB ROLL, Net Wt. 7.9oz (224g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC 1 00000 50055 2
Product Quantity:
5 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0417-2021
Code Information:
EXP 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
MG Foods TURKEY & PROVOLONE BLT ON A BUTTERY CROISSANT, Net Wt. 8.1oz (229g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC 1 00000 50065 1
Product Quantity:
65 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0418-2021
Code Information:
EXP 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
MG Foods TURKEY & PROVOLONE ON 12 GRAIN WITH LETTUCE, TOMATO AND MAYONNAISE, Net Wt. 8.9oz (255g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC 1 00000 50066 8
Product Quantity:
10 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0419-2021
Code Information:
EXP 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
MG Foods TURKEY & SWISS ON A BUTTERY CROISSANT, Net Wt. 7.5oz (216g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC 1 00000 50011 8
Product Quantity:
37 Sandwiches
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0420-2021
Code Information:
EXP 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
FRESH TO YOU Deluxe Club Wrap, Net Wt. 10.39oz (295g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC MGF9814
Product Quantity:
127 wraps
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0421-2021
Code Information:
Fresh Thru 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
MG Foods ROASTED TURKEY IN A TOMATO BASIL WRAP, Net Wt. 6.9oz (196g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC 1 00000 50005 7
Product Quantity:
192 wraps
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0422-2021
Code Information:
EXP 03/07/21
 
Product Description:
MG Foods THE CLUB IN A SPINACH WRAP, Net Wt. 8.5oz (244g), MG Foods Charlotte, NC 28208, UPC 1 00000 50008 8
Product Quantity:
31 Wraps
Reason for Recall:
The firm received positive test results for Listeria monocytogenes during in house environmental sampling on one of their meat slicers.
Recall Number:
F-0423-2021
Code Information:
EXP 03/07/21

France – Product recall: Pierre Sajous brand fresh pork sausage – Listeria monocytogenes

Oulah

Product recall: Pierre Sajous brand fresh pork sausage

ENCOUNTERED PROBLEM

Presence of Listeria monocytogenes

PROPOSED SOLUTION

Those in possession of this product are asked not to consume it and to return it to the point of sale where it was purchased.

People who have consumed this product and who present with fever, isolated or accompanied by headaches, are invited to consult their attending physician, notifying him of this consumption.
Pregnant women should pay special attention to these symptoms, as well as immunocompromised people and the elderly. These symptoms may suggest listeriosis, a disease that can be serious and can take up to eight weeks to incubate.

FURTHER INFORMATION

▸ Barcode

▸ Lot
230321

▸ DLC
04/02/2021


Vacuum packaging

▸ Start date / End of marketing
From 03/23/2021 to 04/02/2021

▸ Health mark
FR 65 077 002 CE

▸ Distributors
Boutique de l’Atelier Pierre Sajous (65400)

▸ Source
https://rappel.conso.gouv.fr/

France – Product recall: Neutral brand fresh pork sausage – Listeria monocytogenes

Oulah

Product recall: Neutral brand fresh pork sausage

ENCOUNTERED PROBLEM

Presence of Listeria monocytogenes

PROPOSED SOLUTION

Those in possession of this product are asked not to consume it and to return it to the point of sale where it was purchased.

People who have consumed this product and who present with fever, isolated or accompanied by headaches, are invited to consult their attending physician, notifying him of this consumption.
Pregnant women should pay special attention to these symptoms, as well as immunocompromised people and the elderly. These symptoms may suggest listeriosis, a disease that can be serious and can take up to eight weeks to incubate.

FURTHER INFORMATION

▸ Barcode

▸ Lot
230321

▸ DLC
04/02/2021

▸ Packaging
In bulk at the traditional shelf (cutting)

▸ Start date / End of marketing
From 03/23/2021 to 04/02/2021

▸ Distributors
• Carrefour Market Lourdes (65100)
• Carrefour Market Argeles Gazost (65400)

▸ Consumer service contact
0562421055

▸ Source
https://rappel.conso.gouv.fr/

Research – Effect of the Dry-Cured Fermented Sausage “Salchichón” Processing with a Selected Lactobacillus sakei in Listeria monocytogenes and Microbial Population

MDPI

In the present work, the effect of processing of dry-cured fermented sausage “salchichón” spiked with the selected Lactobacillus sakei 205 was challenge-tested with low and high levels of L. monocytogenes. The evolution of the natural microbial population throughout the “salchichón” ripening was also evaluated. For this, a total of 150 “salchichón” were elaborated and divided into six equal cases which were inoculated with different levels of L. monocytogenes, and L. sakei 205. Afterwards, sausages were ripened for 90 days according to a typical industrial process. Moisture content (%) and water activity (aw) decreased throughout the ripening up to values around 26% and 0.78, respectively. No differences for moisture content, aw, pH, NaCl and nitrite concentration were observed between the analyzed cases. Lactic acid bacteria counts in the L. sakei 205 inoculated cases were always higher than 6 log CFU g−1 during ripening. Enterobacteriaceae counts were reduced during ripening until non-detectable levels at the end of processing. Reductions in L. monocytogenes counts ranged from 1.6 to 2.2 log CFU g−1; therefore, the processing of “salchichón” itself did not allow the growth of this pathogen. Reduction in L. monocytogenes was significantly higher in the cases inoculated with L. sakei 205. View Full-Text

France – Product recall: Leroy brand 100% smoked salmon Tartars – Listeria monocytogenes

Oulah

Product recall: Leroy brand 100% smoked salmon Tartars

ENCOUNTERED PROBLEM
Presence of Listeria monocytogenes

PROPOSED SOLUTION
Those in possession of this product are asked not to consume it and to return it to the point of sale where it was purchased.

People who have consumed this product and who have a fever, isolated or accompanied by headaches, are invited to consult their doctor, notifying him of this consumption.
Pregnant women should pay special attention to these symptoms, as well as immunocompromised people and the elderly. These symptoms may suggest listeriosis, a disease that can be serious and can take up to eight weeks to incubate.

FURTHER INFORMATION
▸ Names of models or references • 130000604 SMOKED SALMON TARTARE 4X170G • 130005001 SMOKED SALMON TARTARE 170G


▸ Lot
210760074

▸ DLC
04/09/2021

▸ Packaging
plastic tray in a protective atmosphere

▸ Marketing
From 03/30/2021 to 04/02/2021

▸ Geographical sales area
• PAS-DE-CALAIS (62)
• RHONE (69)

▸ Distributors
• FISHCUT
factory store
• EUROSALMON factory store • André Butchers

▸ Consumer service contact
0366991000

▸ Source
https://rappel.conso.gouv.fr/

France – Product recall: CABROL LA SALVETAT dry liver sausage 250g – Listeria monocytogenes

Oulah

Product recall: CABROL LA SALVETAT dry liver sausage 250g

ENCOUNTERED PROBLEM

Presence of Listeria monocytogenes

PROPOSED SOLUTION

Those in possession of this product are asked not to consume it and to return it to the point of sale where it was purchased.

People who have consumed this product and who have a fever, isolated or accompanied by headaches, are invited to consult their doctor, notifying him of this consumption.
Pregnant women should pay special attention to these symptoms, as well as immunocompromised people and the elderly. These symptoms may suggest listeriosis, a disease that can be serious and can take up to eight weeks to incubate.

FURTHER INFORMATION

▸ Barcode
• 3453892206123
• ean variable weight: 0220612

▸ Lot
10

▸ DLC
from 04/29/2021 to 05/08/2021

▸ Health
stamp FR 34-293-001 CE

▸ Date of birth
03/10/2021

▸ Marketing
From 03/30/2021 to 04/02/2021

▸ Source
https://www.supercasino.fr/

Italy – MD SpA – Matches of speck 90g – Listeria monocytogenes

Salute

Brand : MD SpA

Name : Speck matches 90g

Reason for reporting : Recall due to microbiological risk

Publication date : 12 April 2021

Documentation

Documentation

France – Product recall: Clos Chevrel brand Valençay cheese – Listeria monocytogenes

Oulah

Product recall: Clos Chevrel brand Valençay cheese

ENCOUNTERED PROBLEM

Possible presence of Listeria monocytogenes

PROPOSED SOLUTION

Those in possession of this product are asked not to consume it and to return it to the point of sale where it was purchased.

People who have consumed this product and who present with fever, isolated or accompanied by headaches, are invited to consult their attending physician, notifying him of this consumption.
Pregnant women should pay special attention to these symptoms, as well as immunocompromised people and the elderly. These symptoms may suggest listeriosis, a disease that can be serious and can take up to eight weeks to incubate.

FURTHER INFORMATION

▸ Barcode
3250390398028

▸ Lot
V028

▸ DDM
04/03/2021

▸ Source
https://www.processalimentaire.com/

Research – Pioneering project describes molecular epidemiology of listeriosis in humans and Listeria monocytogenes in food

ECDC

A collaborative study between ECDC, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Listeria monocytogenes* found a relatively high degree of dissemination of certain listeriosis bacteria in the food chain and in the human population across the European Union (EU). In particular, there was a strong link with ready-to-eat fish products in several of the listeriosis clusters identified.

Listeriosis is a foodborne disease caused by L. monocytogenes bacteria. After ingestion of L. monocytogenes bacteria via contaminated food, infection can cause severe, life-threatening disease, often manifested as septicaemia and/or meningitis, particularly among elderly and immunocompromised people, as well as complications related to pregnancy.

The collaborative study, called ‘the European Listeria Typing Exercise’ (ELiTE), was initiated in 2010 with the aim of describing with a One Health approach the molecular epidemiology of listeriosis in humans and food in a two-year period. The study connected data about public health and food from 13 and 23 EU Member States, respectively. The study on L. monocytogenes in food was conducted on three categories of ready-to-eat food: packaged hot or cold smoked or ‘gravad’ (cured) fish, soft or semi-soft cheeses, and packaged heat-treated meat products.

The study has utilised molecular typing, which is a way of identifying specific strains of microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses, by looking at their genetic material. The selected molecular typing method for this project, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), was a well-established, standardised molecular typing method in both sectors at the time of the study and was therefore a natural choice.

PFGE as a molecular typing method is gradually phasing out and is being replaced by the state-of-the-art method of whole genome sequencing (WGS). The project has bridged the PFGE method with WGS method by mapping the clustering PFGE types with respective clonal complexes (CCs) characterised by WGS. This offers a unique reference with information from historical PFGE cluster types linked to WGS, thus enabling countries to make use of historical PFGE data to select isolates for further characterisation by WGS. A cluster means that isolates are genetically very similar, i.e. they most likely originate from a common source. If human and food isolates are gathered in the same cluster, it is a strong, but not definite, indication that the food may have caused the infections. Microbiological evidence alone is not sufficient to link the food with human infections, and supportive epidemiological evidence is always required.

There were 78 separate clusters by PFGE profiles, involving 573 (57.7%) L. monocytogenes isolates in the study dataset. Of these, 21 included both human and food L. monocytogenes isolates, 47 included only human, and 10 only food isolates. In the 21 human-food clusters, the majority of food isolates (89.7%) were from fish products, whereas the remaining ones originated from delicatessen meat products (9.3%) and cheese products (1.0%). The amount of Listeria in fish products was generally low, but in 48 fish samples Listeria counts exceeded the microbiological criterion of 100 cfu/g. These high-count fish samples represented 87.3% of all food samples (55) with Listeria counts exceeding 100 cfu/g.

Of 78 clusters by PFGE profiles, 57 (73.1%) were small, up to five L. monocytogenes isolates per cluster. The largest PFGE cluster was made up of L. monocytogenes clone CC8. The cluster involved 30 human and 56 food L. monocytogenes isolates from 15 countries, suggesting a high degree of dissemination of this clone in the food chain in the EU. In contrast, considering the capacity of Listeria to persist in the food chain for years, this clone is likely to eventually cause large cross-border food-borne outbreaks.

The results from this project show that the risk of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat fish products requires further attention. A review of the compliance of food business operators with regulatory microbiological criteria could be considered, particularly for fish products. In the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) there is an increasing proportion of aged populations, and challenges related to assessing exposure in this group. A genetic library of food-derived L. monocytogenes isolates against which any human isolate could be compared could maximise the speed of source identification in outbreak investigations. The data collected in this study and the applied methodology provide a good background for such a library.

*Hosted by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, ANSES