A team of European researchers estimates that more than 33,000 people in Europe die each year from antibiotic-resistant infections, and that the growing health burden of these infections is similar to that of influenza, tuberculosis, and HIV combined.
The results of the study, which calculated the incidence of five types of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in 31 European Union/European Economic Activity (EU/EEA) countries and measured the impact of those infections in number of cases, attributable deaths, and overall health burden, were published yesterday in The Lancet Infectious Diseases. The estimates are based on 2015 data from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net).
The present investigation was done to study the prevalence and antibiotic resistance properties of S. aureus strains isolated from hospitals foods. Four‐hundred and fifty‐seven raw and cooked hospital food samples were collected and transferred to laboratory. Samples were cultured and S. aureus isolates were subjected to disk diffusion method. Forty‐seven out of 457 (10.28%) hospital food samples harbored S. aureus. Chicken meat (27.02%), meat barbecue (16.12%) and salad (7.14%) were the most commonly contaminated samples. S. aureus strains exhibited the highest levels of resistance against penicillin (70.21%), tetracycline (59.57%) and trimethoprim‐sulfamethoxazole (51.06%). Prevalence of resistance against ceftaroline (25.53%) and chloramphenicol (27.65%) were low. High prevalence of S. aureus in raw and cooked hospital food samples showed insufficiency of cooking time and temperature in the kitchens of hospitals as well as lack of personal hygiene. Further studies are essential to assess other microbiological and epidemiological aspects of the S. aureus.
Due to the general weakness of hospitalized patients, hospital food samples should have a high microbial quality. Staphylococcus aureus is common foodborne bacteria with an emergence of antibiotic resistance. This study emphasizes the importance of multidrug resistant S. aureus in hospital food sample. Results represented that hospital food samples may act as a reservoir of S. aureus with ability to transfer antibiotic resistance.
Posted in Antibiotic Resistance, Antimicrobials, Food Hygiene, Food Inspections, Food Micro Blog, Food Microbiology, Food Microbiology Blog, Food Poisoning, Food Safety, Food Testing, Food Toxin, Uncategorized
Bacteria are very sneaky in their efforts to develop resistance to antibiotics. Some strains of bacteria package up the genetic instructions for how they defend themselves and cause disease, and pass this information on to neighboring, naïve, bacteria — essentially gifting their colleagues with the defenses they need to survive against our medical armory of antibiotics. Scientists have now answered a key question about how a dangerous bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, shares its genetic information.
Background. Widely recognized as a major public health threat globally, the rapid increase of antibiotic resistance in bacteria could soon render our most effective method to combat infections obsolete. Factors influencing the burden of resistance in human populations remain poorly described, though temperature is known to play an important role in mechanisms at the bacterial level. Methods. We performed an ecologic analysis of country level antibiotic resistance prevalence in 3 common bacterial pathogens across 28 countries in Europe, and used multivariable models to evaluate associations with minimum temperature and other predictors over a 17-year period (2000-2016). We quantified the effects of minimum temperature, population density, and antibiotic consumption on the rate of change of antibiotic resistance across geographies. Findings. For three common bacterial pathogens and four classes of antibiotics, we found evidence of a long-term effect of ambient minimum temperature on rates of increase of antibiotic resistance across 28 countries in Europe between 2000-2016. Specifically, we show that across all antibiotic classes for the pathogens E. coli and K. pneumoniae, European countries with 10°C warmer ambient temperatures have experienced more rapid increases in antibiotic resistance over the 17-year period, ranging between 0.33%/year (95% CI 0.2, 0.5) and 1.2%/year (0.4, 1.9), even after accounting for recognized drivers of resistance including antibiotic consumption and population density. We found a decreasing relationship for S. aureus and methicillin of -0.4%/year (95% CI -0.7, 0.0), reflecting widespread declines in MRSA across Europe over the study period. Interpretation. Ambient temperature may be an important modulator of the rate of change of antibiotic resistance. Our findings suggest that rising temperatures globally may hasten the spread of resistance and complicate efforts to mitigate it.
The high use of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases is one of the main problems in the mass production of animal protein. Salmon farming in Chile is a clear example of the above statement, where more than 5,500 tonnes of antibiotics have been used over the last 10 years. This has caused a great impact both at the production level and on the environment; however, there are still few works in relation to it. In order to demonstrate the impact of the high use of antibiotics on fish gut microbiota, we have selected four salmon farms presenting a similar amount of fish of the Atlantic salmon species (Salmo salar), ranging from 4,500 to 6,000 tonnes. All of these farms used treatments with high doses of antibiotics. Thus, 15 healthy fish were selected and euthanised in order to isolate the bacteria resistant to the antibiotics oxytetracycline and florfenicol from the gut microbiota. In total, 47 bacterial isolates resistant to florfenicol and 44 resistant to oxytetracycline were isolated, among which isolates with Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) exceeding 2048 μg/mL for florfenicol and 1024 μg/mL for oxytetracycline were found. In addition, another six different antibiotics were tested in order to demonstrate the multiresistance phenomenon. In this regard, six isolates of 91 showed elevated resistance values for the eight tested antibiotics, including florfenicol and oxytetracycline, were found. These bacteria were called “super-resistant” bacteria. This phenotypic resistance was verified at a genotypic level since most isolates showed antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to florfenicol and oxytetracycline. Specifically, 77% of antibiotic resistant bacteria showed at least one gene resistant to florfenicol and 89% showed at least one gene resistant to oxytetracycline. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the high use of the antibiotics florfenicol and oxytetracycline has, as a consequence, the selection of multiresistant bacteria in the gut microbiota of farmed fish of the Salmo salar species at the seawater stage. Also, the phenotypic resistance of these bacteria can be correlated with the presence of antibiotic resistance genes.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a critical health problem, with systemic antimicrobial therapy driving development of AMR across the host spectrum.
This study compares longitudinal carriage, at multiple timepoints, of AMR faecal Escherichia coli in dogs undergoing routine antimicrobial treatment.
Faecal samples (n = 457) from dogs (n = 127) were examined pretreatment, immediately after treatment and 1 month and 3 months post-treatment with one of five antimicrobials. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to a range of antimicrobials using disc diffusion for each treatment group at different timepoints; the presence/absence of corresponding resistance genes was investigated using PCR assays. The impact of treatment group/timepoint and other risk factors on the presence of resistance [MDR, fluoroquinolone resistance, third-generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR) and ESBL and AmpC production] was investigated using multilevel modelling. Samples with at least one AMR E. coli from selective/non-selective agar were classed as positive. Resistance was also assessed at the isolate level, determining the abundance of AMR from non-selective culture.
Treatment with β-lactams or fluoroquinolones was significantly associated with the detection of 3GCR, AmpC-producing, MDR and/or fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli, but not ESBL-producing E. coli, immediately after treatment. However, 1 month post-treatment, only amoxicillin/clavulanate was significantly associated with the detection of 3GCR; there was no significant difference at 3 months post-treatment for any antimicrobial compared with pretreatment samples.
Our findings demonstrated that β-lactam and fluoroquinolone antibiotic usage is associated with increased detection of important phenotypic and genotypic AMR faecal E. coli following routine therapy in vet-visiting dogs. This has important implications for veterinary and public health in terms of antimicrobial prescribing and biosecurity protocols, and dog waste disposal.