Category Archives: Pseudomonas

Research – Antimicrobial and preservative effects of the combinations of nisin, tea polyphenols, rosemary extract and chitosan on pasteurized chicken sausage

Journal of Food Protection

The study evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of the combinations of nisin (NS), tea polyphenols (TP), rosemary extract (RE) and chitosan (CS) on low-temperature chicken sausage. An orthogonal test revealed that the most effective antimicrobial compositions were equal-quantity mixtures of 0.05% NS + 0.05% TP + 0.03% RE + 0.55% CS . The mixture also produced strong antimicrobial and antioxidant effects in low-temperature chicken sausage related to extend the shelf life to more than 30 days at 4°C. The study also investigated the inhibitory zone of NS, TP, RE and CS against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Staphylococcus aureus which were the dominant spoilage bacteria in low-temperature chicken sausage. NS had the greatest inhibitory effect on LAB and Staphylococcus aureus , exhibiting clear zone diameters of 19.7 mm and 17.8 mm respectively. TP had the largest inhibitory effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa , exhibiting a clear zone diameter of 18.2 mm. These results indicated that the combination of NS, TP, RE and CS could be used as natural preservative s to efficiently inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms in low-temperature chicken sausage so as to improve its safety and shelf life.

RASFF Alert – Pseudomonas fluorescens – Mozzarella

European Food Alerts


Pseudomonas fluorescens (130000000 CFU/g) in mozzarella from Italy in Italy

Australia – Freedom Foods Pty Ltd — Milk Lab Almond Milk 1L and Blue Diamond Almond Breeze Chocolate Almond Milk 1L

Product Safety Australia

Photograph of Milk Lab Almond Milk and Blue Diamond Almond Breeze Chocolate Almond Milk

What are the defects?

The recall is due to potential microbial contamination (Pseudomonas).

What are the hazards?

Food products with microbial contamination may cause illness if consumed.

What should consumers do?

Any consumers concerned about their health should seek medical advice and should return the products to the place of purchase for a full refund.

For further information, please contact Freedom Foods by phone on 1800 646 231 or visit

Traders who sold this product

Milk Lab Almond Milk sold nationally in coffee shops, food service outlets and distributors

Blue Diamond Almond Breeze Chocolate Almond Milk sold in Coles and Woolworths in NSW, QLD, Vic and WA and Coles in SA and Tas and distributors

Where the product was sold
Dates available for sale
  • 29 June 2020 – 1 September 2020
  • 10 August 2020 – 1 September 2020

Recall advertisements and supporting documentation

Coordinating agency

Food Standards Australia New Zealand is the coordinating agency for this recall.

Australia – MILKLAB and Blue Diamond almond milk – Pseudomonas spp


Freedom Foods is recalling their MILKLAB Almond Milk and Blue Diamond Almond Breeze Chocolate Almond Milk due to a potential microbial contamination.

This recall includes an earlier recall by RIO Coffee of MILKLAB Almond Milk with a Best Before date of 6 AUG 2021 in SA – this recall has been removed from the website.

MILKLAB Almond Milk has been available for sale nationally in various coffee shops and food service outlets.

Blue Diamond Almond Breeze Chocolate Almond Milk has been available for sale in NSW (Coles and Woolworths), QLD (Coles and Woolworths), SA (Coles), TAS (Coles), VIC (Coles and Woolworths) and WA (Coles and Woolworths).

Date markings:

Almond Milk 1L
Best Before dates: 18/06/21, 01/07/21, 20/07/21, 29/07/21, 06/08/21

Blue Diamond
Almond Breeze
Chocolate Almond Milk 1L
Best Before date: 27/04/21

UHT almond milk brand milk lab and blue diamond almond breeze


The recall is due to potential microbial contamination (bacteria pseudomonas).

Food safety hazard

Food products with microbial contamination may cause illness if consumed.

Country of origin


What to do​

Any consumers concerned about their health should seek medical advice and should return the products to the place of purchase for a full refund.

For further information please contact:

Freedom Foods
1800 646 231


Related links:

Research – Synergistic antibacterial effect of nisin, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and sulfite on native microflora of fresh white shrimp during ice storage

Wiley Online

This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of using nisin, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and sulfite alone or in combination in reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus Salmonella enterica , and Pseudomonas fluorescens in broth and native microflora on raw Pacific white shrimp during ice storage. Nisin (50 ppm), EDTA (20 mM), alone or in combination were used to test on the growth of parahaemolyticus enterica , and fluorescens in broth. Nisin (50 ppm), EDTA (20 mM), sodium metabisulfite (1.25 and 0.625%), ice; alone or in combination were used on shrimps during 1°C storage for 10 days. Microbial and chemical changes were analyzed during shrimp storage. First, the combination of nisin and EDTA exhibited antibacterial effects against parahaemolyticus enterica , and fluorescens in broth. Second, in shrimp preservation, the combination of nisin, EDTA, and sulfite at a low dose of 0.625% exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than did a high dose of sulfite (1.25%). Based on aerobic bacteria counts, psychrotrophic bacteria, and TVB‐N, shrimp treatment with combination of nisin, EDTA, and low‐dose sulfite were still acceptable within 10 days of storage. Based on our findings, nisin and EDTA can be used to reduce uses of sulfite for shrimp preservation in the future.

Research – Evaluation of weakly acidic electrolyzed water and modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life and quality of farmed puffer fish (Takifugu obscurus ) during cold storage

Wiley Online

The combined effect of weakly acidic electrolyzed water (WAEW) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) treatments on the quality of puffer fish (Takifugu obscurus ) during cold storage was studied on aspects of microbiological activity, texture, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N), trimethylamine (TMA), free amino acids (FAAs), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), ATP‐related compounds and value, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and organoleptic properties. As a result, significantly ( < .05) higher inhibitory effects on total viable counts (TVC), H2S‐producing bacteria (including Shewanella putrefaciens ), Pseudomonas spp., and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were observed in WAEW‐treated puffer fish packaged in 60%CO2/5%O2/35%N2 atmosphere than that in air package and vacuum package with/without WAEW‐treated samples. In addition, chemical results showed that WAEW together with MAP treatments were highly efficient in maintaining lower TVB‐N, TMA, and TBARS values in refrigerated puffer fish. Moreover, the presence of WAEW combined with MAP treatments showed positive effects on retarding the relative content of fishy flavor compounds, such as 1‐octen‐3‐ol, 1‐penten‐3‐ol, hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, ()‐2‐octenal, and 2,3‐butanedione. As a whole, the combined effect of WAEW and MAP on refrigerated puffer fish is advisable to maintain better quality and extend the shelf life.

Research – Effect of Peracetic Acid Solutions and Lactic Acid on Microorganisms in On-Line Reprocessing Systems for Chicken Slaughter Plants

Journal of Food Protection


During poultry slaughter and processing, microbial cross-contamination between individual chickens is possible, as well as from one slaughter animal to the next without direct contact. One option for reducing the risk of cross-contamination is to decrease the number of microorganisms on contact surfaces by using disinfectants. The aim is to decontaminate the surfaces coming into direct contact with the carcasses. In the present study, the effectiveness of different disinfectants was investigated in laboratory settings, simulating the conditions in the slaughterhouses and in a chicken slaughterhouse. For this, an artificial residue substance (consisting of yeast extract, albumin, and agar) was developed, tested, and included in the assays. Two disinfectants were tested under laboratory conditions: lactic acid (5 and 6.67%) and peracetic acid (0.33 and 0.5%). At the slaughterhouse, peracetic acid (0.021%) was used. In the laboratory tests, it was found that the peracetic acid solution had the highest disinfection potential with respect to an Escherichia coli strain (reduction >4 log CFU mL−1) at 0.5% without an artificial residue substance. The tested lactic acid solutions also showed the highest disinfection potential against a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, without an artificial residue substance. When applying the artificial residue substance, the reduction potential of lactic acid and peracetic acid was decreased to less than 1.4 log CFU mL−1. Application of peracetic acid in the slaughterhouse reduced the number of total aerobic bacteria by more than 4 log CFU mL−1 and the number of Enterobacteriaceae by more than 3 log CFU mL−1, depending on the place of sampling.

  • Peracetic acid and lactic acid decreases E. coli and P. aeruginosa numbers in vitro.
  • Sanitation in place reduces the number of bacteria in a chicken slaughterhouse.
  • The number of total aerobic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae was significantly reduced.

Research – Occurrence and characterisation of biofilms in drinking water systems of broiler houses




Water quality in the drinking water system (DWS) plays an important role in the general health and performance of broiler chickens. Conditions in the DWS of broilers are ideal for microbial biofilm formation. Since pathogens might reside within these biofilms, they serve as potential source of waterborne transmission of pathogens to livestock and humans. Knowledge about the presence, importance and composition of biofilms in the DWS of broilers is largely missing. In this study, we therefore aim to monitor the occurrence, and chemically and microbiologically characterise biofilms in the DWS of five broiler farms.


The bacterial load after disinfection in DWSs was assessed by sampling with a flocked swab followed by enumerations of total aerobic flora (TAC) and Pseudomonas spp. The dominant flora was identified and their biofilm-forming capacity was evaluated. Also, proteins, carbohydrates and uronic acids were quantified to analyse the presence of extracellular polymeric substances of biofilms. Despite disinfection of the water and the DWS, average TAC was 6.03 ± 1.53 log CFU/20cm2. Enumerations for Pseudomonas spp. were on average 0.88 log CFU/20cm2 lower. The most identified dominant species from TAC were Stenotrophomonas maltophiliaPseudomonas geniculata and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However at species level, most of the identified microorganisms were farm specific. Almost all the isolates belonging to the three most abundant species were strong biofilm producers. Overall, 92% of all tested microorganisms were able to form biofilm under lab conditions. Furthermore, 63% of the DWS surfaces appeared to be contaminated with microorganisms combined with at least one of the analysed chemical components, which is indicative for the presence of biofilm.


Stenotrophomonas maltophiliaPseudomonas geniculata and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are considered as opportunistic pathogens and could consequently be a potential risk for animal health. Additionally, the biofilm-forming capacity of these organisms could promote attachment of other pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1186/s12866-019-1451-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Research – Indoor Particulate Matter From Smoker Homes Induces Bacterial Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Impairs Airway Antimicrobial Activity. A Pilot Study


Background: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution causes deleterious health effects; however, less is known about health effects of indoor air particulate matter (IAP).

Objective: To understand whether IAP influences distinct mechanisms in the development of respiratory tract infections, including bacterial growth, biofilm formation, and innate immunity. Additionally, we tested whether IAP from Iowa houses of subjects with and without recent respiratory exacerbations recapitulated the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) IAP findings.

Methods: To test the effect of NIST and Iowa IAP on bacterial growth and biofilm formation, we assessed Staphylococcus aureus growth and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation with and without the presence of IAP. To assess the effect of IAP on innate immunity, we exposed primary human airway surface liquid (ASL) to NIST, and Iowa IAP. Lastly, we tested whether specific metals may be responsible for effects on airway innate immunity.

Results: NIST and Iowa IAP significantly enhanced bacterial growth and biofilm formation. NIST IAP (whole particle and the soluble portion) impaired ASL antimicrobial activity. IAP from one Iowa home significantly impaired ASL antimicrobial activity (p < 0.05), and five other homes demonstrated a trend (p ≤ 0.18) of impaired ASL antimicrobial activity. IAP from homes of subjects with a recent history of respiratory exacerbation tended (p = 0.09) to impair ASL antimicrobial activity more than IAP from homes of those without a history respiratory exacerbation. Aluminum and Magnesium impaired ASL antimicrobial activity, while copper was bactericidal. Combining metals varied their effect on ASL antimicrobial activity.

Conclusions: NIST IAP and Iowa IAP enhanced bacterial growth and biofilm formation. ASL antimicrobial activity was impaired by NIST IAP, and Iowa house IAP from subjects with recent respiratory exacerbation tended to impair ASL antimicrobial activity. Individual metals may explain impaired ASL antimicrobial activity; however, antimicrobial activity in the presence of multiple metals warrants further study.

RASFF Alert – Pseudomonas aeruginosa – Crushed Ice


RASFF – Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1 CFU/ml) in crushed ice from Spain in Italy