Category Archives: Shigella

Research – Research shows estimated 180 deaths per year in UK because of foodborne illness

Food Safety News

Researchers have estimated there are 180 deaths per year in the United Kingdom caused by foodborne diseases from 11 pathogens.

The Food Standards Agency (FSA) estimates that about 2.4 million cases of foodborne illness occur every year in the UK.

Foodborne norovirus is projected to cause 56 deaths per year, Salmonella 33 deaths, Listeria monocytogenes 26, Clostridium perfringens 25, and Campylobacter 21. Most fatalities occur in those aged 75 years and older.

Foodborne deaths from Shigella, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, adenovirus, astrovirus and rotavirus are rare, according to the study published in the journal BMJ Open Gastroenterology.

Research – Essential Oils: Their Antibacterial Properties and Potential Applications in Foods–A Review

Pub Med

Abstract

In vitro studies have demonstrated antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella dysenteria, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus at levels between 0.2 and 10 microl ml(-1). Gram-negative organisms are slightly less susceptible than gram-positive bacteria. A number of EO components has been identified as effective antibacterials, e.g. carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, having minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.05-5 microl ml(-1) in vitro. A higher concentration is needed to achieve the same effect in foods. Studies with fresh meat, meat products, fish, milk, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and cooked rice have shown that the concentration needed to achieve a significant antibacterial effect is around 0.5-20 microl g(-1) in foods and about 0.1-10 microl ml(-1) in solutions for washing fruit and vegetables. EOs comprise a large number of components and it is likely that their mode of action involves several targets in the bacterial cell. The hydrophobicity of EOs enables them to partition in the lipids of the cell membrane and mitochondria, rendering them permeable and leading to leakage of cell contents. Physical conditions that improve the action of EOs are low pH, low temperature and low oxygen levels. Synergism has been observed between carvacrol and its precursor p-cymene and between cinnamaldehyde and eugenol. Synergy between EO components and mild preservation methods has also been observed. Some EO components are legally registered flavourings in the EU and the USA. Undesirable organoleptic effects can be limited by careful selection of EOs according to the type of food.

Scotland – HPS publishes annual surveillance reports for Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E, Listeria, Norovirus, Shigella and Yersinia in Scotland for 2019

HPS

12 May 2020

Article: 54/1901

On 12 May 2020, Health Protection Scotland (HPS) published the following annual surveillance reports:

USA – Preliminary Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food — Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2016–2019

CDC

Summary

What is already known about this topic?

The incidence of most infections transmitted commonly through food has not declined for many years.

What is added by this report?

Incidence of infections caused by ListeriaSalmonella, and Shigella remained unchanged, and those caused by all other pathogens reported to FoodNet increased during 2019. Infections caused by Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, did not decline; however, serotype Typhimurium infections continued to decline.

What are the implications for public health practice?

New strategies that target particular serotypes and more widespread implementation of known prevention measures are needed to reduce Salmonella illnesses. Reductions in Salmonella serotype Typhimurium suggest that targeted interventions (e.g., vaccinating chickens and other food animals) might decrease human infections. Isolates are needed to subtype bacteria so that sources of illnesses can be determined.

Information – Common Symptoms of All of the Food Poisoning Pathogens

Food Poisoning Bulletin

Food poisoning outbreaks occur every year in the United States. These outbreaks can be caused by bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella, Listeria Monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Campylobacter, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella, Vibrio, and Bacillus cereus; and viruses such as norovirus and hepatitis A. At least 48,000,000 Americans are sickened with food poisoning every year. Do you know the common symptoms of all of the food poisoning pathogens? Follow the link above to find out.

 

Research -Microbial composition of Korean kefir and antimicrobial activity of Acetobacter fabarum DH1801

Wiley Online

Kefir is a probiotic dairy product containing multiple species of lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and yeast, with varying microbial composition depending on geographical origin. In the present study, we characterized the acetic acid bacterial population in Korean kefir by next‐generation sequencing‐based community analysis and isolated a novel acetic acid bacterial strain, Acetobacter fabarum DH1801. To evaluate its potential application in the food industry, the antimicrobial activity of A. fabarum DH1801 against seven foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereusStaphylococcus aureusListeria monocytogenesCronobacter sakazakiiSalmonella Enteritidis, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Shigella flexneri) was analyzed by growth curve analysis. Remarkably, the culture filtrate of the novel isolate inhibited the growth of all seven pathogenic bacteria in a dose‐dependent manner, which was superior to acetic acid solution of same pH value. Our findings suggest that the A. fabarum DH1801 strain forms a protective barrier during kefir fermentation against contamination by foodborne pathogens.

RASFF Alert – Foodborne Outbreak – Shigella – Fresh Sugar Snap Peas

RASFF-Logo

RASFF – foodborne outbreak suspected to be caused by Shigella sonnei in fresh sugar snap peas from Kenya, via the Netherlands in Norway

Research – Shigella Bacteremia, Georgia, USA, 2002–2012

CDC

Abstract

Shigella commonly causes gastroenteritis but rarely spreads to the blood. During 2002–2012, we identified 11,262 Shigella infections through population-based active surveillance in Georgia; 72 (0.64%) were isolated from blood. Bacteremia was associated with age >18 years, black race, and S. flexneri. More than half of patients with bacteremia were HIV-infected.

Norway – Shigella outbreak sickens eight, Linked to imported sugar peas from Kenya

Outbreak News Today

The Institute of Public Health in Norway is reporting a Shigella sonnei outbreak that has sickened at least eight people in several counties across the country.

sugarsnaps

In early December 2019, several people became ill with gastrointestinal symptoms after eating in a canteen in Oslo. The bacterium Shigella sonnei was found in samples from 5 of the patients. The local outbreak was investigated in collaboration with the infection control superior and the Food Safety Authority in Oslo. Imported sugars from Kenya were likely sources of infection.

Research – Massachusetts General Hospital publishes new Shigella research

Outbreak News Today

The bacterial pathogen Shigella, often spread through contaminated food or water, is a leading cause of mortality in both children and older adults in the developing world. Although scientists have been studying Shigella for decades, no effective vaccine has been developed, and the pathogen has acquired resistance to many antibiotics. The recent discovery of an early adherence step in the infection cycle by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) could provide a new therapeutic target or even a new method for vaccine development.

As it moves through the digestive system, Shigella traverses the small intestine and subsequently infects the large intestine, causing cramping, diarrhea and dehydration in the disease called shigellosis. “We wanted to determine how Shigella makes its first contact with epithelial cells in the early stages of disease development,” says Dr. Christina Faherty, senior author on the study published in mSphere. “Because of certain gene sequence annotations, and the way that Shigella appeared following growth in standard laboratory media, it was believed that Shigella strains do not produce fimbriae or other adherence factors.” Fimbriae are short hair-like fibers that bacterial cells use to adhere to individual epithelial cells to instigate infection.