Category Archives: Vibrio

USA – Vibrio Shigella E. coli Outbreak Linked to Raw Oysters in California

Food Poisoning Bulletin

A Vibrio Shigella E. coli and norovirus outbreak linked to raw oysters from Baja California Sur, Mexico has sickened at least 12 people in California, according to the California Department of Public Health (CDPH).

Those twelve patients reported illnesses in February, March, and April 2019 after consuming raw oysters that were sold by restaurants and retailers in Los Angeles, Orange, Santa Barbara, and San Diego counties. The raw oysters were sold throughout the state.

Lab testing was performed on isolates from eight cases. Officials identified Vibrio parahaemolyticus in three patients, Vibrio albensis in one, an unidentified species of Vibrio in one patient, Shigella flexneri serotype 1 in two patients, and norovirus. In addition, one of the people infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus cases was co-infected with non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli bacteria.

Traceback evidence has shown that the oysters were harvested from Estero El Cardon. Authorities in Mexico have been notified about this outbreak and are investigating.

RASFF Alert – Vibrio parahaemolyticus – Frozen Shrimps

RASFF-Logo

RASFF – Vibrio parahaemolyticus (present /25g) in frozen shrimps (Penaeus vannamei) from India in the Netherlands

RASFF Alerts – Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus – Frozen Shrimp

RASFF-Logo

RASFF – Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in frozen shrimp from Vietnam in Norway

Research – Vibrio spp. from Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) demonstrating virulence properties and antimicrobial resistance

Wiley Online Library

Abstract

We report the prevalence and characterization of Vibrio spp. isolated from marketed Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) in Korea. A total of 30 isolates including, V. parahaemolyticus (n = 2), V. alginolyticus (n = 9), V. fluvialis (n = 7), V. diabolicus (n = 7), V. anguillarum (n = 4) and V. aestuarianus (n = 1) were isolated and identified. The phenotypic pathogenicity tests demonstrated that, 18 (60%), 21 (70%), 18 (60%), 7 (23%), 22 (73%), 21 (70%), 9 (30%), and 11 (33%) of the isolates were positive for DNase, protease, gelatinase, lipase, phospho‐lipase, amylase, slime production, and haemolysis, respectively. PCR assays revealed the prevalence of toxR, tlh, VAC, vfh, hupO, and VPI genes among the isolates with varying combinations. A close genetic affinity among V. alginolyticus and V. diabolicus strains was observed. Also the virulence genes specific to one Vibrio species were detected among other species as well. In addition, 29/30 (97%) isolates were multidrug resistant, while higher resistance rates were shown for ampicillin, colistin, vancomycin, and cephalothin. The results imply that the scallops in Korean markets harbor Vibrio spp., which are potentially virulent and multidrug resistant, thus their public health implications should not be underrated.

Practical applications

For many decades, vibrios are known for its importance in seafoodborne illnesses. Yesso scallop is the most popular and extensively cultured scallop variety in Korea. Therefore, we sought to assess the marketed fresh Yesso scallops for the prevalence and molecular characterization of Vibrio species. A total of 30 strains were isolated and identified by a series of biochemical tests, subsequent gyrB gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Six Vibrio spp. were identified with V. alginolyticus as the most prevalent. Interestingly, V. alginolyticus was genetically similar to V. diabolicus. Besides, the virulence genes specific to V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were observed in other species as well. It suggests that the detection of the species‐specific genes does not ensure the correct identification of pathogenic vibrios. Further, the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus‐specific virulence genes in other Vibrio spp. potentially complicates the correct tracking of V. parahaemolyticus infections. In addition, 73% of these Vibrio spp. isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indices higher than 0.2, which signifies their high risk of infection. Collectively, these results provide important evidence that not only the well‐known pathogenic vibrios like V. parahaemolyticus, but also other Vibrio spp. can act alike because of their similar characteristics.

Europe – Cholera – Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017

Publication series: Annual Epidemiological Report on Communicable Diseases in Europe
Time period covered: This report is based on data for 2017 retrieved from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) on 11 September 2018.
In 2017, five EU/EEA countries reported 17 laboratory-confirmed cases of cholera, which was in the range of previous years. All cases were infected outside of Europe.

Research – Long-Term Depuration of Crassostrea virginica Oysters at Different Salinities and Temperatures Changes Vibrio vulnificus Counts and Microbiological Profile

Journal of Food Protection

Previous short-duration depuration studies with the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) demonstrated difficulty in achieving significant naturally incurred Vibrio vulnificus population count reductions. The present study used long-duration depuration (14 days) at controlled temperatures (10 or 22°C) and salinities (12, 16, or 20 mg/g). All depuration temperature–salinity combinations significantly reduced V. vulnificus counts, with greatest reductions seen in 12 mg/g, 10°C seawater (2.7-log CFU/g reduction) and in 20 mg/g, 22°C seawater (2.8-log reduction). Mesophilic vibrios dominated the overall microflora of freshly harvested oysters, whereas refrigerated storage selected for psychrotrophic bacteria (Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Shewanella spp., Psychrobacter spp.) as well as did depuration at 10°C (Pseudoalteromonas spp., Shewanella spp., Vibrio spp.). Depuration at 22°C retained dominance of mesophilic vibrios, including pathogenic species, followed by Shewanella spp., Pseudoalteromonas spp., and Photobacterium spp. Although aerobic plate counts were lower in 22°C depurated oysters (5.0 log versus 6.0 log) compared with 10°C, depuration at 10°C offered greater V. vulnificus population reductions than depuration at 22°C. This advantage was only seen at 12 mg/g salinity, with no impact at 16 and 20 mg/g salinities. No depuration treatment reduced V. vulnificus counts to nondetectable levels. Use of prolonged depuration may be a helpful intervention to control V. vulnificus populations in oysters.

RASFF Alert- Vibrio parahaemolyticus – Frozen Squid

RASFF-Logo

RASFF-Vibrio parahaemolyticus in frozen squid (Loligo spp.) from India in Greece