Category Archives: Vibrio cholera

Malawi bans sale of food in primary, secondary schools as cholera death toll hits 117

China Org

LILONGWE, Oct. 9 (Xinhua) — Malawi has banned sale of food in primary and secondary schools ahead of the new school year, which starts Monday, as cholera outbreak continues with 117 cumulative deaths recorded as of Sunday.

Requesting parents to pack homemade food for students, the education ministry “is directing that selling of food in primary and secondary schools is banned with immediate effect until further notice,” said a statement signed by Secretary for Education Chikondano Mussa.

Universities and colleges are advised to ensure that food vendors and suppliers are oriented and adhere to the standard operating procedures issued by the ministry to all learning institutions.

Cholera has been spreading sporadically across the country since the first cases were recorded in the south-eastern border district of Machinga in March.

As of Sunday, 23 districts have reported cases with 17 districts coming on board in the past 14 days, bringing the caseload and death toll to 4,223 and 117 respectively. Enditem

Syria – Cholera outbreak

Jpost

Food Illness

cholera outbreak in several regions of Syria presents “a serious threat to people in Syria and the region”, the United Nations representative in the country said, calling for an urgent response to contain its spread.

The outbreak is believed to be linked to irrigation of crops using contaminated water and people drinking unsafe water from the Euphrates river which bisects Syria from the north to the east, UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Imran Riza said in a statement.

Europe – ECDC Vibrio Map Viewer

ECDC

ECDC Vibrio map viewer

KSWFOODWORLD

The Vibrio suitability tool (Vibrio map viewer) shows the environmental suitability for Vibrio growth in the Baltic Sea. It is a near real-time model that uses daily updated remote sensing data to examine worldwide environmental conditions, such as sea surface temperature and salinity for Vibrio spp.. The model used for the Vibrio viewer has been calibrated to the Baltic Region in Northern Europe and might not apply to other worldwide settings prior to validation.

Infections caused by Vibrio species other than V. cholerae can be serious, particularly for immunocompromised persons. However, the overall occurrence is low despite an increase having recently been observed in northern Europe.

ECDC monitors Vibrio growth in the Baltic Sea during the summer. If and when the risk of Vibrio growth is determined as medium or above, notifications are reported in the weekly threats reports (CDTR). The original viewer is available on the ECDC website: https://geoportal.ecdc.europa.eu/vibriomapviewer

RASFF Alert- Vibrio cholerae, parahaemolyticus, vulnificus – Shrimp

RASFF

Detection of vibrio in shrimp from Venezuela in France

RASFF

Vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio vulnificus detected in frozen shrimps from Vietnam in France

Research – Prevalence, genomic characterization, and risk assessment of human pathogenic Vibrio species in seafood

Journal of Food Protection

Pathogenic Vibrio spp. are largely responsible for human diseases caused through consumption of contaminated seafood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, population densities, species diversity and molecular characteristics of pathogenic Vibrio in various seafood commodities and its associated health risks. Samples of finfish and shellfish (oysters and sea urchins) were collected from different regions and analyzed for Vibrio using the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique. Genomic DNA of putative Vibrio isolates was analyzed by whole genome sequencing (WGS) for taxonomic identification and identification of genes responsible for virulence and antimicrobial resistance. The risk of vibrio-related illnesses due to the consumption of contaminated seafood was assessed using Risk Ranger. Population densities of presumptive Vibrio fell in the range of 2.6 – 4.4 Log MPN/g and correlated with seasonality, with the summer season favoring significantly (p < 0.05) higher Vibrio counts. A total of 15 Vibrio isolates were identified as V. alginolyticus (5), V . parahaemolyticus (6), V. harveyi (2) or V. diabolicus (2). Two of the six V. parahaemolyticus isolates (ST 2504 and ST 2505) originating from oysters were found to be either tdh + or trh + and thus considered a human pathogen due to elaboration of Thermostable Direct Hemolysin (TDH) or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH). In addition to virulence genes, the shellfish isolates also harbored genes encoding resistance to multiple antibiotics including tetracycline, penicillin, quinolone and beta-lactam antibiotics, thus arousing concern. The risk assessment exercise pointed to an estimated 21 annual cases of V. parahaemolyticus -associated gastroenteritis in the general population attributed to consumption of contaminated oysters. This study highlights not only the wide prevalence and diversity of Vibrio in seafood, but also the potential of certain strains to threaten public health.

Research – Epidemiological and microbiological investigation of a large increase in vibriosis, northern Europe, 2018

Eurosurveillance

Food Illness

The habitat of  spp. bacteria is fresh and brackish water with moderate salinity. Non-toxigenic , as well as several human pathogenic non-cholera  species, including  and , cause vibriosis after seawater exposure or consumption of contaminated seafood [1]. Clinical manifestations range from mild gastroenteritis and otitis to wound infections that may lead to severe necrotising fasciitis and septicaemia with a potentially fatal outcome [25].

The Baltic Sea region is one of the areas where increasing numbers of cases related to  species causing vibriosis (VCV) have been reported in the last decades [6]. Several studies have shown how the occurrence of heatwaves, which lead to an increase in sea surface temperature, are linked with an increase in the number of reported vibriosis cases [4,712]. For instance, the years with an especially warm summer in the Baltic Sea region, 2006, 2010 and particularly 2014 (the warmest year in historical records at the time), were also the years with the largest number of vibriosis cases reported [6,11].

However, there is a notable gap in surveillance data for vibriosis since it is not a notifiable disease in the majority of European countries [1,6]. Therefore, the aim of this multi-country study was to describe the epidemiology of vibriosis cases in countries bordering the North and Baltic Seas area during the exceptionally warm year of 2018 [13,14], in order to investigate the extent of these infections in the study countries, map their genetic diversity, understand the predictors for developing severe vibriosis, and propose recommendations for public health measures.

RASFF Alerts – Vibrio cholerae – Shrimps

RASFF

Vibrio cholerae in frozen shrimps from Ecuador in Spain

Nepal – Nepalese cholera outbreak: Kathmandu bans Panipuri

World Akkam

Kathmandu, June 26: Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, is currently facing another outbreak of cholera. As of Sunday, at least 12 people have been infected with the disease, and authorities are struggling to contain the outbreak.

Cases of cholera have been found in several parts of the city, and health authorities have not yet identified the source. It was found that the water sources in many areas contained Vibrio cholerae.

Meanwhile, Kathmandu’s affiliated city, Lalitpur, has banned the sale of Panipuri and chat from Sunday for fear of cholera.

Lalitpur Metropolitan City (LMC) has decided to stop selling and distributing Panipuri and Chatpate in big cities from Saturday. LMC has banned the sale of Panipuri and Chapati, claiming that Vibrio cholerae was found in the water used in Panipuri.

RASFF Alerts – Vibrio cholerae – Shrimps

RASFF

Presence of Vibrio cholerae in shrimps from Ecuador in Spain

RASFF

Vibrio cholerae in shrimps from Ecuador in Spain

RASFF Alert – Vibrio cholerae – Prawns

RASFF

Vibrio cholerae in prawns from Ecuador in Spain