Category Archives: vibrio cholerae

Research – Advances in science and risk assessment tools for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus associated with seafood: meeting report


Globally, the Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus represent important human pathogens associated with the consumption of seafood. In response to the requests for scientific advice from Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH), risk assessments for the pathogens V. vulnificus, V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and guidance on methods for the detection of Vibrio spp. with seafood have been conducted and published previously by JEMRA. In order to provide an update on the state-of-the-art advice regarding risk assessment for V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in seafood, an expert meeting was convened.

Several critical developments in the last decade were subsequently noted by the expert working group: 1) The emergence of highly pathogenic strains; 2) In response to climate change, there has been a significant geographical spread regarding when and where these seafood-associated Vibrio infections; 3) Demographic considerations are very important; 4) A range of new approaches for best practice; and 5) A range of new methods, such as those utilising genomics and satellite imagery. This report describes the output of that expert meeting.

RASFF Alert- Vibrio cholerae – Shrimps


Vibrio cholerae in shrimps from Ecuador in Spain

Research – The European Scientific Conference on Applied Infectious Disease Epidemiology (ESCAIDE)



Page 71 – An Easter Surprise: Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to chocolate products in the United Kingdom, 2022; a case control study

Page 72  – International outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium linked to a chocolate factory in 2022: Belgian findings

Page 73 – Whole Genome Sequencing identified a prolonged Salmonella Poona nursery outbreak (2016-2021) in North West England, UK

Page 74 – Climate Warming and increasing Vibrio vulnificus infections in North America

Page 106 – Timely and reliable outbreak investigation using a non-probabilistic online panel as a source of controls – two parallel case-control studies investigating a Salmonella Braenderup outbreak in Germany

Page 107 – An outbreak of Escherichia coli-associated haemolytic uremic syndrome linked to consumption of an unexpected food vehicle, France 2022

Page 108 – Outbreak investigation of cholera in a peri-urban village of Panchkula district, Haryana, India, 2021

Page 109 – Cholera Outbreak Investigation, Ballo Adda Mohalla, Lucknow District, Uttar Pradesh 2021

Page 110 – Norovirus GII.3[P12] outbreak associated with the drinking-water supply in a rural area in Galicia, Spain, 2021

Page 111 – Impact of COVID-19 restrictions on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. in England and Wales

Page 149 – Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to chocolate products, Ireland, 2022

Page 151 – Successful containment of a Listeria monocytogenes outbreak caused by shredded vegetables, Hesse/Germany, 2021-2022

Page 152 – Outbreak of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium linked to fresh small tomatoes, Sweden, 2021

Page 194 – Cholera Outbreak Investigation, Kamarhati-Municipality, North-24-Parganas District, West Bengal, India 2021

Page 195 – Botulism outbreak and response in Dangara District Tajikistan, October 2020

Page 196 – Outbreak of suspected Clostridium perfringens associated with consumption of roast beef in a restaurant, January 2022 South West England

Page 198 – Doughnuts for weight loss? A norovirus outbreak in the Australian Capital Territory, November 2021

Page 212 – Outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease linked to unregistered cooling towers, West Midlands, England, July-September 2020



Malawi bans sale of food in primary, secondary schools as cholera death toll hits 117

China Org

LILONGWE, Oct. 9 (Xinhua) — Malawi has banned sale of food in primary and secondary schools ahead of the new school year, which starts Monday, as cholera outbreak continues with 117 cumulative deaths recorded as of Sunday.

Requesting parents to pack homemade food for students, the education ministry “is directing that selling of food in primary and secondary schools is banned with immediate effect until further notice,” said a statement signed by Secretary for Education Chikondano Mussa.

Universities and colleges are advised to ensure that food vendors and suppliers are oriented and adhere to the standard operating procedures issued by the ministry to all learning institutions.

Cholera has been spreading sporadically across the country since the first cases were recorded in the south-eastern border district of Machinga in March.

As of Sunday, 23 districts have reported cases with 17 districts coming on board in the past 14 days, bringing the caseload and death toll to 4,223 and 117 respectively. Enditem

RASFF Alert- Vibrio cholerae, parahaemolyticus, vulnificus – Shrimp


Detection of vibrio in shrimp from Venezuela in France


Vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio vulnificus detected in frozen shrimps from Vietnam in France

Research – Prevalence, genomic characterization, and risk assessment of human pathogenic Vibrio species in seafood

Journal of Food Protection

Pathogenic Vibrio spp. are largely responsible for human diseases caused through consumption of contaminated seafood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, population densities, species diversity and molecular characteristics of pathogenic Vibrio in various seafood commodities and its associated health risks. Samples of finfish and shellfish (oysters and sea urchins) were collected from different regions and analyzed for Vibrio using the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique. Genomic DNA of putative Vibrio isolates was analyzed by whole genome sequencing (WGS) for taxonomic identification and identification of genes responsible for virulence and antimicrobial resistance. The risk of vibrio-related illnesses due to the consumption of contaminated seafood was assessed using Risk Ranger. Population densities of presumptive Vibrio fell in the range of 2.6 – 4.4 Log MPN/g and correlated with seasonality, with the summer season favoring significantly (p < 0.05) higher Vibrio counts. A total of 15 Vibrio isolates were identified as V. alginolyticus (5), V . parahaemolyticus (6), V. harveyi (2) or V. diabolicus (2). Two of the six V. parahaemolyticus isolates (ST 2504 and ST 2505) originating from oysters were found to be either tdh + or trh + and thus considered a human pathogen due to elaboration of Thermostable Direct Hemolysin (TDH) or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH). In addition to virulence genes, the shellfish isolates also harbored genes encoding resistance to multiple antibiotics including tetracycline, penicillin, quinolone and beta-lactam antibiotics, thus arousing concern. The risk assessment exercise pointed to an estimated 21 annual cases of V. parahaemolyticus -associated gastroenteritis in the general population attributed to consumption of contaminated oysters. This study highlights not only the wide prevalence and diversity of Vibrio in seafood, but also the potential of certain strains to threaten public health.

Research – Epidemiological and microbiological investigation of a large increase in vibriosis, northern Europe, 2018


Food Illness

The habitat of  spp. bacteria is fresh and brackish water with moderate salinity. Non-toxigenic , as well as several human pathogenic non-cholera  species, including  and , cause vibriosis after seawater exposure or consumption of contaminated seafood [1]. Clinical manifestations range from mild gastroenteritis and otitis to wound infections that may lead to severe necrotising fasciitis and septicaemia with a potentially fatal outcome [25].

The Baltic Sea region is one of the areas where increasing numbers of cases related to  species causing vibriosis (VCV) have been reported in the last decades [6]. Several studies have shown how the occurrence of heatwaves, which lead to an increase in sea surface temperature, are linked with an increase in the number of reported vibriosis cases [4,712]. For instance, the years with an especially warm summer in the Baltic Sea region, 2006, 2010 and particularly 2014 (the warmest year in historical records at the time), were also the years with the largest number of vibriosis cases reported [6,11].

However, there is a notable gap in surveillance data for vibriosis since it is not a notifiable disease in the majority of European countries [1,6]. Therefore, the aim of this multi-country study was to describe the epidemiology of vibriosis cases in countries bordering the North and Baltic Seas area during the exceptionally warm year of 2018 [13,14], in order to investigate the extent of these infections in the study countries, map their genetic diversity, understand the predictors for developing severe vibriosis, and propose recommendations for public health measures.

Nepal – Nepalese cholera outbreak: Kathmandu bans Panipuri

World Akkam

Kathmandu, June 26: Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, is currently facing another outbreak of cholera. As of Sunday, at least 12 people have been infected with the disease, and authorities are struggling to contain the outbreak.

Cases of cholera have been found in several parts of the city, and health authorities have not yet identified the source. It was found that the water sources in many areas contained Vibrio cholerae.

Meanwhile, Kathmandu’s affiliated city, Lalitpur, has banned the sale of Panipuri and chat from Sunday for fear of cholera.

Lalitpur Metropolitan City (LMC) has decided to stop selling and distributing Panipuri and Chatpate in big cities from Saturday. LMC has banned the sale of Panipuri and Chapati, claiming that Vibrio cholerae was found in the water used in Panipuri.

RASFF Alerts – Vibrio cholerae – Shrimps


Presence of Vibrio cholerae in shrimps from Ecuador in Spain


Vibrio cholerae in shrimps from Ecuador in Spain

RASFF Alert – Vibrio cholerae – Prawns


Vibrio cholerae in prawns from Ecuador in Spain