Category Archives: Campylobacter




SACRAMENTO, September 27, 2022 – Raw sheep milk produced and packaged by Valley Milk Simply Bottled of Stanislaus County is the subject of a statewide recall and quarantine order announced by California State Veterinarian Dr. Annette Jones.  The quarantine order came following the confirmed detection of the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni in the farm’s packaged raw whole sheep milk sampled and tested by the California Department of Food and Agriculture.

The raw sheep milk is distributed in half-gallon (64 oz) plastic jugs and labeled as “Valley Milk Simply Bottled Raw Sheep Milk”. The recall order applies to products marked on the container with expiration code dates of SEP 28 2022 through OCT 01 2022.

Consumers are strongly urged to dispose of any product remaining in their refrigerators.  The current order does not include the farm’s raw cow milk or raw goat milk.

CDFA found the campylobacter bacteria in a routine sample collected at the Valley Milk Simply Bottled production and packaging facility.  No illnesses have been reported.

UK – AMR in Campylobacter in UK chicken over the last 20 years


Campylobacter kswfoodworld

The Food Standards Agency (FSA) has published a report analysing 20 years of data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Campylobacter from retail chicken in the UK.

The study aimed to assess any trends during this 20-year period and provides a baseline against which to evaluate future, hoped-for reductions in AMR.

AMR is when bacteria adapt to become resistant to the killing effects of antimicrobials, such as antibiotics. This resistance subsequently makes such infections in humans more difficult to treat using drugs.  AMR can develop in any bacteria, including Campylobacter. Campylobacter is the main cause of bacterial food poisoning in the developed world and it is estimated that there are in excess of half a million cases annually in the UK.

The FSA’s Science lead in Microbiological Risk Assessment, Dr Paul Cook, said:

“While the data shows a marked increase in AMR in Campylobacter to certain antimicrobials, it is encouraging that there has been no significant increase in resistance since 2014.

“Any increase of AMR in Campylobacter is a concern and continued surveillance is essential. We will continue to carry out AMR surveillance in chicken and other meats and to monitor any long-term trends in resistance, while promoting good food hygiene practice to reduce exposure to AMR bacteria and protect consumer safety.”

Since its formation in 2000, the FSA has commissioned several UK-wide retail surveys and sampling studies that involved testing for Campylobacter in chicken. A significant proportion of the Campylobacter isolates detected were further tested to assess resistance to a range of antimicrobials.

Key findings from this report vary between the five main types of antimicrobial drugs included in the study. Resistance to quinolones (ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid) and tetracycline was common in the most prevalent types of Campylobacter from chicken (Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli). In comparison, resistance to erythromycin and streptomycin was much rarer in the Campylobacter isolates examined.  Gentamicin resistance was very rare.

There are effective ways for consumers to reduce exposure to AMR bacteria. This includes cleaning surfaces properly, cooking food thoroughly, chilling food at the correct temperature and handling food hygienically so it doesn’t cross contaminate other foods or surfaces. For any fruit or vegetables consumed raw, make sure they are washed thoroughly or peeled as this will help to remove any visible dirt or bacterial contamination.

For more information on AMR, including an ‘FSA Explains’ video, visit our dedicated AMR webpage. The research report is available on our research pages.

What Are Common Food Poisoning Pathogen Incubation Periods?

Food Safety Gov

Check out the fact sheets at the link above.

Bacteria and Viruses

Bacteria and viruses are the most common cause of food poisoning. The symptoms and severity of food poisoning vary, depending on which bacteria or virus has contaminated the food.

To prevent illness, always follow the food safety steps: cleanseparatecook, and chill. Other prevention tips for specific bacteria and viruses are included below.

The bacteria and viruses that cause the most illnesses, hospitalizations, or deaths in the United States are described below and include:

Other important bacteria and viruses that cause foodborne illness include:

Research – Pulsed Light Application for Campylobacter Control on Poultry Meat and Its Effect on Colour and Volatile Profile


Campylobacter on poultry meat needs to be controlled to reduce the risk of infection caused by the consumption of chicken meat. Pulsed light (PL) application on poultry meat was studied to control Campylobacter spp. The effect of this technology was evaluated regarding poultry meat colour and volatile compound changes. Two breast sample groups were prepared: inoculated with Campylobacter (107 bacteria of Campylobacter jejuni strains) and not inoculated. Samples were submitted to PL, five pulses/s of 300 ms, 1 Hz, and 1 J/cm2 in the apparatus, PL Tecum unit (Claranor). A response surface experimental design was applied regarding the factors of voltage (1828 to 3000 W) and distance to the source UV lamp (2.6 to 5.4 cm). The binomial factorial treatment (voltage and distance) with PL induced different energy doses (fluence J/cm2) received by samples, 2.82 to 9.67 J/cm2. Poultry meat pulsed light treated had a significant decrease of Enterobacteriaceae counts. The treatments applied were unable to reduce 1 log Campylobacter cfu/g of poultry meat. The poultry meat PL treated became slightly light, redder, and yellower than those not treated. PL can decrease the proportion of aldehydes on total volatiles in meat, particularly on those associated with chicken-like, chicken skin-like, and sweet odour notes in fresh poultry meat. Further studies of PL with higher energy doses will be necessary to confirm if there are Campylobacter reductions and about poultry meat treated under storage to evaluate if volatile compounds can affect the flavour of PL-treated meat samples. View Full-Text

RASFF Alert – Campylobacter – Chicken


Campylobacter in chicken from Hungary in Austria

USA – Illinois county reports outbreak of infections from Campylobacter

Food Safety News

Campylobacter kswfoodworld

The McHenry County Department of Health in Illinois is reporting a significant increase in infections from Campylobacter.

Health officials have identified eight cases of campylobacteriosis with illness onsets between Aug. 17 and Aug. 30. That is four times more cases compared to the previous two weeks and 3.33 times more cases in August compared to July.

“No common source of infection has been identified at this time,” according to the health department.

Campylobacter bacteria is the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the United States, according to the county health officials. People can become ill with campylobacteriosis by eating contaminated food, drinking contaminated water or having contact with infected animals.

RASFF Alert – Campylobacter – Guinea Fowl


Campylobacter in guinea fowl from France, via Germany in Austria and France

Research – Campylobacter Retailer Survey

Lex blog

Campylobacter kswfoodworld

Lidl has reported Campylobacter in chicken levels above the FSA’s target for the second quarter of 2022.

The supermarket chain recorded 8 percent of birds in the highest category which is up from 2 percent in the previous quarter and 6 percent in the period before that.

The Food Standards Agency (FSA) maximum level is 7 percent of birds with more than 1,000 colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) of Campylobacter.

Data from all nine retailers covers April to June 2022 on high findings of Campylobacter in fresh, shop-bought, UK-produced chickens.

Results at Lidl and Asda went up while Sainsbury’s, Marks and Spencer, Morrisons, Waitrose and Aldi recorded lower levels of contamination compared to the previous quarter. Figures for Tesco and Co-op stayed the same.

Research – Washing or rinsing chicken increases Microbial risk.

Fight Bac

Don't Wash Your Chicken Text block

Research – Lag between Campylobacter cases in broilers and humans

Poultry World

A Swedish study of human cases of campylobacteriosis and the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broilers has found a 2-week time lag, suggesting transmission through handling and consumption of fresh chicken meat.

The study, published in the International Journal of Food Microbiology, looked at cases between 2009 and 2019, exploring the relationship between the proportion of Campylobacter-positive broiler batches and the number of reported domestic cases in Sweden in humans.