Category Archives: Campylobacter

UK – Sainsbury’s Campylobacter rates in chicken hit FSA threshold

Food Safety News

Campylobacter kswfoodworld

Sainsbury’s has recorded the worst Campylobacter in chicken results for the final three months of 2020 closely followed by Tesco.

Figures come from the top nine retailers in the United Kingdom publishing the latest quarter of testing findings.

The Food Standards Agency (FSA) threshold is 7 percent of birds with more than 1,000 colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) of Campylobacter.

Sainsbury’s reported 7 percent of chickens sampled were above 1,000 CFU/g in the fourth quarter of 2020 (4Q), compared to 2 percent in 3Q, slightly more than 4 percent in 2Q and about 3 percent in 1Q 2020.

Research – What lives inside the chicken gut?

Phys Org

In a recently published study, investigators from Norwich and Surrey have more than doubled the number of microbial species known to live in the chicken gut. As the health and wealth of humans is tied to the health and productivity of chickens, this lays down a key resource for all future studies on the gut microbiome of this important food animal.

With three times as many chickens as people on our planet, this ubiquitous food animal underpins human nutrition and health across the globe—whether through subsistence farming or intensive production, chickens supply more of our food than any other animal. Chicken meat is surging in popularity as a lower-carbon alternative to meat from other livestock, whilst eggs remain an important and affordable source of nutrition worldwide. However, poultry are also a source of antimicrobial resistance and of pathogens such as Campylobacter, Salmonella and E. coli that threaten human health.

Research – Resistance levels still high in bacteria causing foodborne infections


A sizeable proportion of Salmonella and Campylobacter bacteria is still resistant to antibiotics commonly used in humans and animals, as in previous years, says a report released today by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

In humans, high proportions of resistance to ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic commonly used to treat several types of infections, were reported in a specific Salmonella type known as S. Kentucky (82.1%). In recent years, S. Enteritidis resistant to nalidixic acid and/or ciprofloxacin has been increasingly reported in several countries. The increasing occurrence of fluoroquinolone and/or quinolone resistance in these types of Salmonella probably reflects the spread of particularly resistant strains.

In Campylobacter, resistance to ciprofloxacin is now so common in most countries that this antimicrobial has limited use in treatment of Campylobacter infections in humans.

However, the report also includes some positive findings. Over the period 2015-2019, a decline in resistance to ampicillin and tetracyclines has been observed in Salmonella isolates from humans in eight and eleven Member States respectively.

A decreasing trend has also been observed in the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- producing E. coli in samples from food producing animals from 13 Member States between 2015 and 2019. This is an important finding as particular strains of ESBL-producing E. coli are responsible for serious infections in humans.

Combined resistance to two critically important antimicrobials – fluoroquinolones and third generation cephalosporines in Salmonella and fluoroquinolones and macrolides in Campylobacter – remains low. These critically important antimicrobials are commonly used to treat serious infections from Salmonella and Campylobacter in humans.

The rate of E. coli bacteria in samples from food producing animals that respond to all antimicrobials tested also increased. This was observed in nine Member States over the period 2014-2019.

The report was based on antimicrobial resistance monitoring data collected by Member States as part of their EU regulatory obligations and jointly analysed by EFSA and ECDC with the assistance of external contractors.

USA – Washington: Campylobacter infections linked to unpasteurized raw milk

Outbreak News Today


The Washington Department of Health reports five lab-positive campylobacteriosis cases in individuals who consumed Dungeness Valley Creamery raw milk. The raw milk was purchased in Clallam, Skagit, Kitsap, and Clark Counties.

Dungeness Valley Creamery has issued a voluntary recall of all raw milk product with a ‘Best By’ date of April 13, 2021, or earlier. These products may be contaminated with Campylobacter bacteria, which can cause serious illness. The recalled product is bottled in gallon, half-gallon, quart and pint containers. It was sold to customers in western Washington in the on-farm store, outside retail stores and drop-off locations. Health officials urge consumers not to drink any Dungeness Valley Creamery raw milk product with a ‘Best By’ date of April 13, 2021, or earlier, and to discard any leftover product, or return it to the place of purchase.

“Unpasteurized raw milk can carry harmful bacteria and germs. Foodborne illnesses can be caused by many different foods; however, raw milk is one of the riskiest,” said Dr. Scott Lindquist, State Epidemiologist for Communicable Diseases.

Norway – Children sick in Norway after drinking raw milk

Food Safety News

Almost 20 children in Norway have fallen sick after a farm visit that included drinking unpasteurized, raw milk.

Health officials reported 17 people became ill after the farm trip, including 16 children aged 3 to 5 years old. Most were infected with Campylobacter but a few patients were also diagnosed with infections from the parasite Cryptosporidium after contact with animals.

The children fell ill after the farm visit in Viken, a county in Eastern Norway, where they were served raw, unpasteurized milk as part of their packed lunch. Pasteurization kills bacteria, viruses and parasites often found in raw milk.

The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet) and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (Folkehelseinstituttet) recommend that children, pregnant women, the elderly and those with weakened immune systems avoid drinking raw milk, because infections can have serious consequences for them.

EU – Stable Campylobacter and Salmonella cases in the EU


The number of reported cases of illnesses caused by Campylobacter  and  Salmonella bacteria   in humans in Europe appear to level off over the past five years, according to the  latest zoonoses report released by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC).

Campylobacteriosis, the most frequently reported gastrointestinal disease in the EU since 2005, affected more than 220,000 people in 2019. Salmonellosis was the second most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU, with around 88,000 people affected.

Of the 66,113 ready-to-eat food samples – foods that did not require cooking before consumption – 0.3% tested positive for  Salmonella . Of the 191,181 non-ready-to-eat food samples, 1.5% tested positive. 18 of the 26 Member States reporting on programs to control  Salmonella  in poultry populations met all their reduction targets, up from 14 in 2018.

The next most frequently reported diseases are   shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), yersiniosis and listeriosis. The trend in confirmed human cases of listeriosis remained stable between 2015 and 2019, after a long period of increase. 2,621 cases were reported in 2019, mostly affecting individuals over the age of 64. It is the most serious disease, with high rates of hospitalization (92%) and mortality (17.6%).

The report also looks at the cause of outbreaks of foodborne illness in the EU, i.e. outbreaks in which two or more people contract the same disease after consuming the same contaminated food. Salmonella  remains the most frequently detected agent and causes 926 outbreaks; the number of outbreaks due to  S . Enteritidis  , on the other hand, has declined. The most common sources of outbreaks of salmonellosis were eggs and egg products. Noroviruses in fish and fishery products cause the greatest number of outbreaks (145) with “strong evidence” involving a food source.

A total of 5,175 outbreaks of foodborne illness were reported in 2019, a decrease of 12.3% from 2018.

The report also contains data on  Mycobacterium bovis / caprae ,  Brucella ,  Yersinia ,  Trichinella ,  Echinococcus ,  Toxoplasma  gondii , rabies, Q fever, West Nile virus and tularemia.

▸ Source

Research – Biofilm-forming ability of poultry Campylobacter jejuni strains in the presence and absence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Canadian Journal of Microbiology

The aims of this study were to evaluate the ability of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse to form biofilm in the presence and absence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the effect of surface (stainless steel, polystyrene), temperature (7, 25, and 42 °C), and oxygen concentration (microaerophilic and aerobic conditions) on the formation of biofilm. The genes ahpCcadFclpPdnaJdocAflaAflaBkatAkpsMluxSracR, and sodB, related to biofilm formation by C. jejuni, were also investigated. All isolates formed biofilm on stainless steel and on polystyrene, in both aerobic and microaerophilic atmospheres, including temperatures not optimal for C. jejuni growth (7 and 25 °C), and biofilm also was formed in the presence of P. aeruginosa. In dual-species biofilm on stainless steel, biofilm formation was 2–6 log CFU·cm−2 higher at 7 °C for all isolates, in comparison with monospecies biofilm. Ten genes (ahpCcadFclpPdnaJdocAflaAflaBluxSracR, and sodB) were detected in all isolates, but katA and kpsM were found in four and six isolates, respectively. The results obtained are of concern because the poultry C. jejuni isolates form biofilm in different conditions, which is enhanced in the presence of other biofilm formers, such as P. aeruginosa.

New Zealand – Recall of raw drinking milk containing Campylobacter from Lindsay Farm in Waipukurau



Image CDC

Raw unpasteurised drinking milk from Central Hawke’s Bay producers Lindsay Farm is being recalled following a detection of Campylobacter as part of their routine testing programmeLindsay Farm is a registered provider of raw milk.

The recall affects Lindsay Farm brand organic raw drinking milk with a use by date between 6 March 2021 and up to and including 21 March 2021. The affected product is sold in the Hawke’s Bay region at seven registered depots and home deliveries. The product is sold in 2-litre plastic bottles.

Campylobacter bacteria can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in people, and can be particularly serious in young people, the elderly, pregnant women and people with weakened immune systems.

New Zealand Food Safety’s national food compliance services manager, Melinda Sando, says people with Lindsay Farm organic raw drinking milk at home should visit the MPI recalls website to check if it is among the batches of recalled product.

“If you have any of the recalled product, throw it out or return it to your supplier, or heat to 70°C and hold at this temperature for one minute. If you don’t have a thermometer, heat the milk until it nearly reaches a boil (or scald the milk) before drinking it.

“Raw milk is inherently more risky than pasteurised milk because the process of pasteurisation kills harmful bacteria. You can get sick from consuming raw milk. If you have health concerns after drinking the product, seek medical advice.

“Campylobacter symptoms include muscle pain, headache and fever followed by watery or bloody diarrhoea, stomach pain and nausea.  Symptoms typically develop 2 to 5 days after infection and last between 3 to 7 days.”

In people with weakened immune systems, such as those with a blood disorder, with AIDS, or receiving chemotherapy, Campylobacter occasionally spreads to the bloodstream and causes a life-threatening infection.

Human campylobacteriosis is a notifiable disease in New Zealand. That means any cases must be reported to public health authorities.

New Zealand – Lindsay Farm brand Organic Raw Milk (unpasteurised) – Campylobacter


18 March 2021: Lindsay Farm is recalling specific batches of Lindsay Farm brand Organic Raw Milk (unpasteurised) as the product may contain Campylobacter.

Lindsay Farm brand Organic Raw Milk (unpasteurised) 2L
Product identification
Product type  Raw (unpasteurised) drinking milk
Name of product (size) Lindsay Farm brand Organic Raw Milk (unpasteurised) 2L
Batch marking Lot numbers:  0203, 0303, 0403, 0503,0603, 0703, 0803,0903, 1003, 1103, 1203,1303, 1403, 1503, 1603 and 1703
Date marking Use by date between 06.03.2021 and up to and including 21.03.2021
Package size and description The product is sold in a 2L plastic bottle.
Distribution The product is sold in the Hawke’s Bay region via home deliveries and the following registered depots:

Betta Electrical, 46 – 48 Ruatainwha Street, Waipukurau

Chantal Shop, 45 Hastings Street, Napier

Cornucopia – The Organic Shop, 221 Heretaunga Street East, Hastings

Dawnacres Florist, 208 Havelock Road, Akina, Hastings

Nature’s Nurture – The Organic Grocer, 100 High Street, Waipawa

Tangaroa Seafoods, 7 Tangaroa Street, Ahuriri, Napier

Unichem Taradale Pharmacy, 288 Gloucester Street, Taradale, Napier.

Notes This recall does not affect any other batches of Lindsay Farm brand Organic Raw Milk (unpasteurised).

Consumer advice

Customers are asked to check the lot number and use by date printed on the product.

If you have purchased any of the affected product listed on this notice, do not consume it. Customers should return the product to their retailer for a full refund. Alternatively, consume after heating to 70°C and holding at this temperature for one minute. If you don’t have a thermometer, heat the milk until it nearly reaches a boil (or scald the milk) before drinking it.

There have been no reports of associated illness in New Zealand. If you have consumed any of this product and have any concerns about your health, seek medical advice.

How to reduce the risk of illness if you drink raw unpasteurised milk

Campylobacter infection: symptoms and advice

Who to contact

If you have questions, contact Lindsay Farm:

  • Phone: 06 858 5333
  • Address: Lindsay Road, Waipukurau, Central Hawke’s Bay.

Research – Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of foodborne pathogens in select fresh produce procured from farmers’ markets in Central Virginia

Wiley Online

As farmers’ markets have increased in size, scope, and complexity, so have potential food‐safety challenges and implications. Most products sold at farmers’ markets may receive minimal to no treatment of decontamination which could increase their potential microbial risks. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of foodborne pathogens in select fresh produce procured from farmers’ markets in Central Virginia. A total of 138 samples produced by 15 farms and sold at 9 registered farmers’ markets were obtained between March and November 2017. CampylobacterEscherichia coli, and Listeria were, respectively, detected in 8.7, 9.4, and 8.0% of the samples. A total of 46 bacterial isolates consisted of CampylobacterE. coli, and Listeria were tested for their susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials. Ampicillin resistance showed the highest frequency among Campylobacter (100%) and E. coli (47.8%) isolates while nalidixic acid resistance was the highest in Listeria isolates (72.7%). At least 17% of each CampylobacterE. coli, and Listeria isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR). No isolates had matching pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles demonstrating that the E. coli isolates had a high degree of genomic diversity. This study demonstrated a potential health hazard arising from farmers’ market‐acquired fresh produce and emphasizes the importance of good agricultural and handling practices to prevent foodborne illness and spread of multidrug antibiotic resistance. Continued research is needed to determine and intervene the cause(s) of the observed prevalence and to support the healthy development of food products sold at farmers’ markets.