Category Archives: campylobacter coli

Research – A foodborne outbreak of Campylobacteriosis at a wedding – Melbourne, Australia, 2022

1 Health


Campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia; how-ever, outbreaks caused by the pathogen are relatively uncommon. In March 2022, the Victorian Department of Health was notified of a gastrointestinal illness in 20 guests following attendance at a wedding reception.

Two of these individuals were notified with laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis, and an investigation was undertaken to identify the source of the infection and implement strategies to prevent further illness. A case-control study was conducted to determine the likely source of infection. Cases were defined as attendees of the wedding reception, with onset of diarrhoea and/or abdominal cramping 1–10 days after attending the function. Controls were randomly selected from the remaining list of non-ill guests. Cases and controls were interviewed using a standardised, menu-based questionnaire.

Food preparation processes were documented, and food samples collected.

A total of 29 wedding guests met the case definition. Cases reported onset of illness 2–5 days fol-lowing the wedding and major symptoms included abdominal cramping (100%), diarrhoea (90%), headache (79%), and fever (62%). Two cases were hospitalised, one with ongoing secondary neu-rological sequelae.

Illness was significantly associated with consumption of a duck breast brioche canapé containing duck liver parfait (odds ratio = 2.85; 95% confidence interval: 1.03–7.86). No leftover food samples were available for testing.The investigation found that the duck canapé was the likely vehicle of infection. Consistent with the literature on Campylobacter transmission, it is likely that inadequate cooking of the duck liver for the parfait was the contributing factor that led to illness. This highlights the risks posed by undercooked poultry dishes, and shows that education of food handlers remains a priority.

Research – Report of the Scientific Committee of the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition (AESAN) on the prospection of biological ha-zards of interest in food safety in Spain (2)


This report addresses the prospection of biological hazards for some types of food that may pose a risk to the population and that are not currently included in the official control programs in Spain.

It completes and updates the 2018 report by the Scientific Committee of the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition (AESAN, 2018). A number of bacteria that are significant contributors to nosocomial infections due to the increase in the number of multi-resistant strains of Acinetobacter spp. ,Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are listed first.

It is also addressed the study of the prevalence and possible control of Bacillus cereus and Cronobacter spp. presence in cereal flours and others, the revision of Campylobacter jejuni and/or Campylobacter coli in meats other than poultry, as well as the study of Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli. These latter two biological agents are much better known from the food control perspective, although there are control measures for Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and not in other types of meat such as beef or pork and in the case of E. coli, producers of Shiga toxins, the control of this particular type of pathogenic strains in food has not been specifically addressed either.

Finally, tick-borne viral encephalitis, which can be transmitted to humans through the consumption of raw milk or raw dairy products, has been indicated as a viral hazard. The prospective study shows the need to determine the prevalence of multi-resistant bacteria of Acinetobacter baumannii, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa in foods in Spain, especially in ready-to-eat foods such as salads and fresh plant-based foods. This is especially important due to the lack of data on the prevalence of these bacteria in foods in Spain. However, food research is carried out in neighbouring countries.

It is also necessary to include C. jejuni and/or C. coli in the investigations of beef and pork, since the incidence of these foodborne pathogens in humans is not explained solely by the presence of these agents in poultry meat, being their presence in other animals for slaughter also evident. Similarly, outbreaks of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli have been reported in Spain over the last 25 years, which makes it advisable to control them in beef, raw milk and leafy vegetables.

With regard to Cronobacter spp. and B. cereus, the importance of these agents can be demonstrated given their survival in powdery materials such as flours of different origins, including cereals, although the reported outbreaks do not seem to indicate a high prevalence. As regards the only viral hazard mentioned, it should be noted that the wide dispersion of the ticks that can transmit this virus, together with the potential consumption of raw milk, makes it advisable to investigate it in raw milk products.

However, the study of the actual infective capacity of this virus is not easy to establish with simple analytical methods. With this last exception, research for controlling all these biological hazards in food is possible, with classical or advanced methodologies that are robust enough, available for each case.

Research – Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meeting on the pre-and post-harvest control of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat


The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meeting on Microbial Risk Assessment (JEMRA) on the pre-and post-harvest control of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat was convened to review recent data and evidence on the topic and to provide scientific advice on control measures for thermotolerant Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli in the broiler production chain. This  document summarizes the  conclusions  of  the  meeting  on  the  pre-and  post-harvest  control  of Campylobacter spp.  in  poultry  meat  and  is being made  available  to facilitate the  deliberations  of  the upcoming Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH). The full report will be published as part of the Food and Agriculture Organization   (FAO)and World   Health Organization(WHO)Microbiological   Risk Assessment (MRA) Series.

Research – High winds can worsen pathogen spread at outdoor chicken farms – Campylobacter

Science Daily

A study of chicken farms in the West found that high winds increased the prevalence of Campylobacter in outdoor flocks, a bacterial pathogen in poultry that is the largest single cause of foodborne illness in the U.S. Researchers found that about 26% of individual chickens had the pathogen at the ‘open environment’ farms in the study, which included organic and free-range chicken farms. High winds the week prior to sampling and the farms’ location in more intensive agricultural settings were linked to a greater prevalence of Campylobacter.

Research – Pathogen Reduction Monitoring Program for Salmonella and Campylobacter for raw poultry


There is a significant burden of illness in Canada from foodborne salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis. Both epidemiological evidence end expert opinion recognize poultry and poultry derived products as an important source of these illnesses.

Salmonella and Campylobacter are known to occur naturally in live poultry and contamination may occur at any stage of the farm-to fork production. Accordingly, food businesses that slaughter poultry or process poultry products need to consider Salmonella and Campylobacter as hazards of concern to their products and implement control measures throughout their production process to mitigate risks. Food businesses can verify the efficacy of their control measures, such as sanitary dressing procedures and antimicrobial interventions by implementing the PRMP.

Research -Burden of foodborne disease due to bacterial hazards associated with beef, dairy, poultry meat, and vegetables in Ethiopia and Burkina Faso, 2017

Frontiers in Microbiology

Foodborne disease is a significant global health problem, with low- and middle-income countries disproportionately affected. Given that most fresh animal and vegetable foods in LMICs are bought in informal food systems, much the burden of foodborne disease in LMIC is also linked to informal markets. Developing estimates of the national burden of foodborne disease and attribution to specific food products will inform decision-makers about the size of the problem and motivate action to mitigate risks and prevent illness. This study provides estimates for the burden of foodborne disease caused by selected hazards in two African countries (Burkina Faso and Ethiopia) and attribution to specific foods. Country-specific estimates of the burden of disease in 2010 for Campylobacter spp., enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Shiga-toxin producing E. coli and non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica were obtained from WHO and updated to 2017 using data from the Global Burden of Disease study. Attribution data obtained from WHO were complemented with a dedicated Structured Expert Judgement study to estimate the burden attributable to specific foods. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to propagate uncertainty. The burden of foodborne disease in the two countries in 2010 was largely similar to the burden in the region except for higher mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to Salmonella in Burkina Faso. In both countries, Campylobacter caused the largest number of cases, while Salmonella caused the largest number of deaths and DALYs. In Burkina Faso, the burden of Campylobacter and ETEC increased from 2010 to 2017, while the burden of Salmonella decreased. In Ethiopia, the burden of all hazards decreased. Mortality decreased relative to incidence in both countries. In both countries, the burden of poultry meat (in DALYs) was larger than the burden of vegetables. In Ethiopia, the burdens of beef and dairy were similar, and somewhat lower than the burden of vegetables. The burden of foodborne disease by the selected pathogens and foods in both countries was substantial. Uncertainty distributions around the estimates spanned several orders of magnitude. This reflects data limitations, as well as variability in the transmission and burden of foodborne disease associated with the pathogens considered.

Lithuania – Three pathogens found in chicken linked to illnesses

Food Safety News

Three people have fallen sick in Lithuania after eating chicken contaminated with Salmonella, Listeria and Campylobacter.

The Kaunas Department of the State Food and Veterinary Service (VMVT Kaunas) received information from the National Public Health Center (NVSC) about three illnesses from chicken wings sold at a café.

Officials from VMVT Kaunas inspected the outlet and found several non-compliances including instances of cross-contamination, hygiene violations at the premises and by employees as well as improper waste management. Operations at the establishment were suspended.

As part of an investigation into the source of infection, VMVT inspectors took samples of surfaces, drinking water and chicken wings for microbiological analysis. Lab testing found Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter in the chicken.

RASFF Alert – Campylobacter – Polish Chicken


Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. in frozen chicken mid wings from Poland in Lithuania

Research – Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Houseflies in Commercial Turkey Farms Are Frequently Resistant to Multiple Antimicrobials and Exhibit Pronounced Genotypic Diversity



Campylobacter is a leading foodborne pathogen, and poultry are a major vehicle for infection. Houseflies play important roles in colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter but comparable information for turkey farms is limited. Here, we investigated houseflies as potential vectors for Campylobacter in 28 commercial turkey flocks. We characterized species, genotypes, and the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of Campylobacter from turkey feces and houseflies in the same turkey house. Of the 28 flocks, 25 yielded Campylobacter from turkey droppings and houseflies, with an average of 6.25 and 3.11 Campylobacter log CFU/g feces and log CFU/fly, respectively. Three flocks were negative for Campylobacter both in turkey feces and in houseflies. Both C. coli and C. jejuni were detected in turkey feces and houseflies, with C. coli more likely to be recovered from houseflies than feces. Determination of Campylobacter species, genotypes, and AMR profiles revealed up to six different strains in houseflies from a single house, including multidrug-resistant strains. For the predominant strain types, presence in houseflies was predictive of presence in feces, and vice versa. These findings suggest that houseflies may serve as vehicles for dissemination of Campylobacter, including multidrug-resistant strains, within a turkey house, and potentially between different turkey houses and farms in the same region.

Research – Campylobacter, the bacterium that causes most foodborne outbreaks in Spain

World Nation News

There were 11,244 cases of Campylobacteriosis in 2021, almost double the 6,891 cases reported in 2020

Campylobacter is the bacterium that causes most gastrointestinal infections in humans. According to the latest report on zoonotic diseases (infections from animals to humans) published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Campylobacter was the most common cause of infection in the EU accounting for 62% of the cases registered in 2021. and the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC).

In Spain, there were 11,244 cases of campylobacteriosis in 2021, almost double the 6,891 cases recorded in 2020. The incidence of this bacterium has a marked seasonal pattern, with the highest figures being found in summer, with a rebound in January. The most frequently implicated food as confirmed by the Consumers’ and Users’ Organization (OCU) is poultry meat (turkey and chicken).