Category Archives: Serratia

Research – Microbiological Changes during Long-Storage of Beef Meat under Different Temperature and Vacuum-Packaging Conditions



We evaluated a combination of two temperatures and two packaging materials for long-term storage of vacuum-packaged (VP) beef striploins. Microbial populations and microbiome composition were monitored during refrigerated storage (120 days between 0–1.5 °C) and refrigerated-then-frozen storage (28 days between 0–1.5 °C then 92 days at −20 °C) under low-O2 permeability VP and high-O2 permeability VP with an antimicrobial (VPAM). Pseudomonas (PSE) and Enterobacteriaceae (EB) counts in VPAM samples were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in VP samples at 28, 45, 90, and 120 days of storage. Microbiome data showed that bacteria of the genera Serratia and Brochothrix were more abundant in VPAM samples at 120 days, while lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominated in VP samples. Frozen temperatures inhibited microbial growth and maintained a relatively stable microbiome. Refrigerated and frozen VPAM samples showed the greatest difference in the predicted metabolic functions at the end of storage driven by the microbiome composition, dominated by PSE and LAB, respectively. Although no signs of visible meat deterioration were observed in any sample, this study suggests that VP meat refrigerated and then frozen achieved better microbiological indicators at the end of the storage period.

Research – Microbiological and physicochemical properties of farm bulk tank milk and antimicrobial resistance of its dominant bacteria

Wiley Online


This study determined the antibiotic resistance of the dominant bacteria in the 85 farm BTMs according to the guidelines recommended by the epidemiological cutoff values in the EUCAST. In addition, some physicochemical and microbiological properties of farm BTMs were investigated. The milk samples were divided into two groups according to their SCC values. The milk samples with higher SCC than 400,000 cells mL−1 were further examined bacteriologically, and the antibiotic resistance of isolates was determined. The average TAMB value was 6.34 log CFU/mL in farm BTM. It was found that high-SCC values did not affect other physicochemical properties of BTM samples, such as fat, protein and total solids, except for lactose content. Seventy-two strains were isolated from 45 bulk milk samples. The most prevalent bacteria were Enterococcus spp. (23.61%). The other isolates were Citrobacter spp. (12.5%), Staphylococcus spp. (12.51%), Serratia spp. (11.12%), Klebsiella spp. (9.72%), Bacillus spp. (9.72%), and Enterobacter spp. (8.33%). In antibiotic resistance analysis, 52.6% of Enterobacterales isolates showed cefoxitin resistance, and nine Enterobacterales isolates were determined as the presumptive ESBL producers. None of them was confirmed as ESBL producers. Moreover, MDR was detected in 83.3% of Enterobacter spp. isolates and all Bacillus spp. isolates. The over and inappropriate use of antibiotics in mastitis treatment may cause antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in milk. It was found that 52.7% of the isolated bacteria were MDR, which could pose a risk to public health and food safety, with the consumer’s increasing interest in consuming raw milk.

Research – Microbiome population dynamics of cold smoked sockeye salmon during refrigerated storage and after culture enrichment 

Journal of Food Protection

Cold smoked salmon is a ready-to-eat seafood product of high commercial importance. The processing and storage steps facilitate the introduction, growth and persistence of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. The growth of commensal bacteria during storage and once the product is opened also influence the quality and safety of cold smoked salmon. Here we investigated the microbial community through targeted 16s rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, as means to better understand the interactions among bacteria in cold smoked salmon. Cold smoked salmon samples were tested over 30 days of aerobic storage at 4℃ and cultured at each timepoint in buffered Listeria enrichment broth (BLEB) commonly used to detect Listeria in foods. The microbiomes were comprised of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria namely, Carnobacterium , Brochothrix , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Psychrobacter . Pseudomonas species were the most diverse species with 181 taxa identified. Additionally, we identified potential homologs to 10 classes of bacteriocins in microbiomes of cold smoked salmon stored at 4°C and corresponding BLEB culture enrichments. The findings presented here contribute to our understanding of microbiome population dynamics in cold smoked salmon, including changes in bacterial taxa during aerobic cold storage and after culture enrichment.  This may facilitate improvements to pathogen detection and quality preservation of this food.