Category Archives: Cryptosporidiosis

Ireland – Boil Water Notice as parasite detected in East Limerick water -Cryptosporidium

Live95 FM


Approximately 470 consumers living close to the Tipperary border have been issued a Boil Water Notice. Traces of cryptosporidium was detected in the Glengar Public Water Supply. A map of the affected area is available to view on the supply and service section of

Following consultation with the (HSE), Uisce Éireann and Tipperary County Council, all consumers affected by this notice are advised to boil their water before drinking it.

supplied by the Glengar Public Water Supply scheme.  Uisce Éireann and Tipperary County Council are issuing this Boil Water Notice with immediate effect.

The notice impacts customers in Glengar, Leugh, Knockanavar, Moher East, Moher West, Shanacloon, Gortaderry, Ballyhane East, Ballyhane West and surrounding areas.

Vulnerable customers who have registered with Uisce Éireann will receive direct communication on this Boil Water Notice and are reminded that the water is safe to consume once boiled and cooled.

Water must be boiled for Drinking;

UK – APHA part of 5 UK E. coli outbreaks in 2022

Food Safety News

The Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) was involved in another two E. coli outbreaks in the United Kingdom in the final quarter of 2022.

In the first, APHA helped Public Health Wales investigate two human cases of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O145 linked to a private collection of animals on a smallholding. Multiple species were onsite including cattle, goats, deer, and pigs. Some food consumed by people was grown in the garden where cattle manure was used. Thirty environmental fecal samples were collected but a match to the outbreak strain was not found.

In the second, APHA visited an open farm at the request of an incident management team following an outbreak of E. coli O157 in people. The outbreak strain was detected in one environmental sample from a pig enclosure. The incident is ongoing so it is unclear how many people are sick. The advice was provided to reduce the risk to the public by making improvements to the supervision of animal contact, enhancing handwashing facilities, and improving some animal exhibits.

In all of 2022, APHA was part of five E. coli investigations. The agency helped the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) investigate E. coli O103, O145, and O26 outbreaks between July and September.

The E. coli O26 outbreak also involved cryptosporidium. There were 11 cases of cryptosporidium and two people had confirmed E. coli O26. Cryptosporidium patients had visited an open farm attraction during the incubation period of illness. The E. coli patients had links to the same premises.

The E. coli O103 outbreak with 11 cases was associated with soft, raw milk cheese from a dairy farm in the East of England. Pasteurization was put in place for the production of the soft cheese, HACCP processes were reviewed, and enhanced control measures were taken.

The E. coli O145 outbreak with 10 patients was traced to the consumption of milk products from a dairy farm in North West England, with illness onset from mid-July. Investigations identified an issue with pasteurization and problems with the cleaning and storage of milk crates.

Research – The Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Wild-Living Carnivores in Poland—A Question Concerning Its Host Specificity



Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that primarily infects the gastrointestinal epithelium in humans and domestic and wild animals. The majority of studies have been focused on human, livestock, and pet infections. Hence, Cryptosporidium spp. in wildlife, including wild carnivores, remained neglected. There are several studies reporting the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild foxes, but these are only a few molecular surveys; no data is available concerning the occurrence of this parasite in raccoon dogs and martens in Europe, and to the best of our knowledge to date, only one study has reported Cryptosporidium from badgers in Spain. Therefore, we used molecular analyses to identify and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. in wild-living mesocarnivores in Poland. A total of 322 individual fecal samples from six carnivore species, i.e., raccoon, raccoon dog, red fox, European badger, pine, and beech martens were collected and then analyzed for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. using the nested PCR method. The appearance of PCR products in the reaction with Cryptosporidium-specific primers against the 18S rRNA and actin genes demonstrated that Cryptosporidium spp. occurred in 23.0% of all examined species of animals. Performed sequence analyses showed the presence of the Cryptosporidium skunk genotype, Cryptosporidium vole genotype II, Cryptosporidium canis dog and fox genotypes, as well as Cryptosporidium erinaceiCryptosporidium ditrichiCryptosporidium suis, and Cryptosporidium alticolis, in these hosts. Molecular data presented here indicate that examined mesocarnivores may be a significant reservoir of specific and non-specific Cryptosporidium species, including those with zoonotic potential. Most studies of carnivores have described the presence of non-specific Cryptosporidium spp. in carnivore hosts, and this is probably the result of the transfer of these parasites from prey species through the digestive tract or the transfer of the parasite from a contaminated environment.

Ireland – EPA finds issues with Fermoy water supply – Cryptosporidium

Irish Examiner


Cryptosporidium had been detected in the public water supply in Fermoy in November last year

The public water supply to the north Cork town of Fermoy could be at risk and placed on a list of water treatment plants needing corrective action, according to the State environmental watchdog.

The Environmental Protection Agency has warned Irish Water that Fermoy’s water treatment plant could be placed on its Remedial Action List which would require the utility to complete an action programme to address problems with the supply.

It follows an audit by EPA inspectors carried out on the facility last November to check if it was providing clean and wholesome water to households and businesses.

Research – An outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum linked to pasteurised milk from a vending machine in England: a descriptive study, March 2021

Cambridge Org

We describe the investigations and management of a Cryptosporidium parvum outbreak of linked to consumption of pasteurised milk from a vending machine. Multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis was newly used, confirming that C. parvum detected in human cases was indistinguishable from that in a calf on the farm. This strengthened the evidence for milk from an on-farm vending machine as the source of the outbreak because of post-pasteurisation contamination. Bacteriological indicators of post-pasteurisation contamination persisted after the initial hygiene improvement notice. We propose that on-farm milk vending machines may represent an emerging public health risk.

UK – Milk and cheese linked to English E. coli outbreaks

Food Safety News

Three E. coli outbreaks were reported in England earlier this year with two linked to dairy farms.

The Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) helped the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) investigate Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O103, O145, and O26 outbreaks between July and September.

The E. coli O26 outbreak also involved cryptosporidium and began in the previous quarter. There were 11 cases of cryptosporidium and two people also had confirmed E. coli O26.

Cryptosporidium cases visited an open farm attraction during the incubation period of their illness. STEC cases had links to the same premises.

Health officials visited and advised on actions that would improve hygiene for visitors and reduce potential exposure to the pathogens.

APHA collected fresh faeces samples in the O103 and O145 incidents, from the yard where the cows had been prior to milking. In both cases, the outbreak strain was not detected.

The STEC O103 outbreak with 11 cases was associated with soft, raw cheese from a dairy farm in the East of England. An investigation pointed to brie-like unpasteurized soft cheese being contaminated sometime during spring.

The STEC O145 outbreak with 10 patients was linked to the consumption of milk products from a dairy farm in North West England, with illness onset from mid-July. Investigations identified an issue with pasteurization and problems with the cleaning and storage of milk crates which made external contamination of packaging plausible.

Sweden – At least 100 ill in Swedish Cryptosporidium salad outbreak

Food Safety News

water contamination

A rise in Cryptosporidium infections in Sweden has been attributed to contaminated salad by public health officials.

The Public Health Agency of Sweden (Folkhälsomyndigheten) said 101 cases of a certain type of Cryptosporidium parvum had been confirmed in 13 regions of the country.

Patients fell ill from Sept. 25 to Oct. 15 this year and women were more affected than men. Cases range from 4 to 86 years old with an average age of 42.

Link to salad
The agency added there are another 99 potential cases being investigated. The type of Cryptosporidium parvum involved is common so there could be several possible sources.

Local infection control units, the Swedish Food Agency (Livsmedelsverket) and Folkhälsomyndigheten investigated the increase in infections to find a source.

Analysis of information from patients on what they had eaten before becoming ill shows they ate mixed or bagged salad more often than a control group.

Salad has a short shelf life so health officials don’t think it is still available for sale but no products have been sampled.

Livsmedelsverket has looked into possible producers and growers but has been unable to find the likely source of infection.

As reported cases of Cryptosporidium have decreased and are at similar levels to previous years, officials believe the outbreak is over.

Research – Survey of the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in green leafy vegetables marketed in the city of Valencia (Spain)

Science Direct


The role of vegetables usually consumed without prior culinary treatment is known to contribute to the prevalence of foodborne diseases. Cysts and oocysts can contaminate food, which can then be the source of infection in humans. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. (oo)cysts in green leafy vegetables marketed in the city of Valencia (Spain) combining parasitological methods, two real-time qPCRs and light microscopy. An experimental field study was conducted on 129 vegetable samples, 64 from conventional farms and 65 from ecological (organic) farms. The samples were washed with water, and the resulting solution after removing the vegetables, was subjected to 24-hour sedimentation. The concentrated sediment was used for the search for protozoa. A positive result by both real-time PCRs, or a positive result by one qPCR and confirmation by microscopy was established as a positivity criterion. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 23.0 % of the samples, and Cryptosporidium spp. in 7.8 %. G. duodenalis (41.5 %) and Cryptosporidium spp. (20.0 %) were more frequent in ecological crops. The high level of contamination detected in organic vegetables may be due to the type of fertilizers and the quality of the water used for their irrigation and reinforces the need to take extreme hygiene measures in vegetables that are consumed raw.

Sweden – Sweden searches for the source of Crypto and Salmonella outbreaks

Food Safety News

Swedish officials are investigating a recent increase in reported cases of Cryptosporidium.

A total of 61 people have been confirmed as being infected by the same certain type of Cryptosporidium parvum. These people fell ill from Sept. 25 to Oct. 10 and live in 10 different regions of the country.

Of confirmed cases, 41 are women and 20 are men. They are aged between 11 and 86 years old with an average age of 44.

There are another 98 possible infections that have been reported within the same period and some of these may also belong to the outbreak.

The Public Health Agency of Sweden (Folkhälsomyndigheten) said the increase is under investigation but could be caused by food with wide distribution in the country.

Local infection control units, the Swedish Food Agency (Livsmedelsverket) and Folkhälsomyndigheten are investigating the outbreak to identify the source of infection.

Cryptosporidium is a parasite that, if ingested, can cause cryptosporidiosis. Transmission occurs mainly through contact with contaminated water but can be via food or exposure to infected animals or water contaminated by the feces of infected animals.

The main symptom is watery diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe. It is often accompanied by stomach pain, nausea or vomiting, fever, and sometimes dehydration and weight loss. Symptoms usually appear two to 10 days after infection and last one to two weeks.

Research – A summary of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks reported in France and overseas departments, 2017–2020

Science Direct

water contamination


Cryptosporidium is a known foodborne pathogen, ranked fifth out of 24 among foodborne parasites in terms of importance and a cause of many cryptosporidiosis outbreaks worldwide. In France, very few outbreaks were reported before 2017, and data recently obtained by the Expert Laboratory of the Cryptosporidiosis National Reference Center (CNR-LE-Cryptosporidiosis) have shown that outbreaks are in fact common and frequently underreported. In this work, we aim to report the characteristics of outbreaks detected in France during the period 2017–2020 and present a summary of investigations carried out by the CNR-LE-Cryptosporidiosis. During the study period, there were eleven cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, including three with no identified origin. Among the eight identified outbreaks: six were due to water contamination (five tap water and one recreational water), one was due to direct contact with infected calves, and one was due to consumption of contaminated curd cheese. Among these outbreaks, five of them exceeded one hundred cases. Recent results obtained by the CNR-LE-Cryptosporidiosis revealed the multiannual occurrence of Cryptosporidium outbreaks in France. Waterborne outbreaks were more frequently detected, while foodborne outbreaks which are more difficult to detect were likely underreported.