Category Archives: Norovirus

Research – Food Fraud With Nasty Results – Norovirus

Food Safety Tech

Norovirus Food Safety kswfoodworld

Global food supply chains are complex and therefore quite vulnerable to errors or fraudulent activity. A company in Chile repackaged and falsely labeled cheap raspberries from China, reselling them as top-level organic Chilean raspberries in Canada. These raspberries were linked to a norovirus outbreak in Canada, sickening hundreds of people. A whistleblower complaint helped to uncover this fraudulent scheme that posed a significant risk to human health.

RASFF Alert- Norovirus – Razor Clams

European Food Alerts


norovirus in razor clams from the Netherlands it Italy

France – Picard brand frozen whole raspberries 1 kg – Norovirus


Product recall: Picard brand frozen whole raspberries 1 kg


Possible presence of Norovirus


Do not consume and return to the point of sale for reimbursement.


▸ Article code

▸ Lot
EC 072-1-20

▸ Consumer service contact
An information center is available for consumers to answer their questions at the following number 0800 091 091 (free service & calls) from Monday to Saturday from 9 am to 6 pm.

▸ Source

Belgium – PICARD – Whole frozen raspberries 1 kg. – Norovirus


Recall of PICARD
Product: Whole frozen raspberries 1 kg.
Problem: possible presence of Norovirus.

In agreement with the AFSCA, Picard is withdrawing frozen whole raspberries from sale and is recalling them to consumers due to the possible presence of Norovirus.
Picard asks its customers not to consume this product and to return it to the point of sale where it was purchased in order to be reimbursed.

Product description

– Product name: Whole frozen raspberries
– Brand: Picard
– Best before end: 12/2021
– Lot number: EC072-1-20
– Sale period: from 23/06/2020 to 16 / 09/2020
– Type of packaging: plastic bag
– Weight: 1 kg


The product was sold through the following Picard stores:

Picard, 120 Chaussée de Bruxelles, 1410 WATERLOO
Picard, 166 Avenue Georges Henri, 1200 WOLUWE-SAINT-LAMBERT
Picard, 41 Rue de Rixensart, 1332 GENVAL

For any further information, contact: .

Research – Human Norovirus strains differ in sensitivity to the body’s first line of defense

Science Daily

Interferon (IFN) responses are one of the first defenses the body mounts against viral infections, and research has shown that it plays a role controlling viral replication. But when researchers at Baylor College of Medicine investigated whether IFN restricted human norovirus (HuNoV) infection in human intestinal enteroids (HIEs), a cultivation system that recapitulates many of the characteristics of the human infection, they unexpectedly discovered that endogenous IFN responses by HIEs restricted growth of HuNoV strain GII.3, but not of GII.4, the most common strain worldwide.

RASFF Alert – Foodborne Outbreak -Norovirus – Frozen Tellins (Donax trunculus)

European Food Alerts


foodborne outbreak suspected to be caused by and norovirus (GI, GII) in frozen tellins (Donax trunculus) from Turkey in Spain

RASFF Alert – Norovirus – Red Currents

European Food Alerts


norovirus (presence /25g) in frozen red currants from Poland in Belgium

RASFF Alerts – Norovirus – Frozen Berry Mix

European Food Alerts


norovirus (GI /25g) in frozen berry mix from the Netherlands in Germany


norovirus (GI /25g) in frozen red berry mix from Germany in Italy

Research – Estimating the distribution of norovirus in individual oysters

Science Direct

Food Borne Illness - Norovirus -CDC Photo

Image CDC

Norovirus in oysters is a significant food safety risk. A recent ISO detection method allows for reliable and repeatable estimates of norovirus concentrations in pooled samples, but there is insufficient data to estimate a distribution of copies per animal from this. The spread of norovirus accumulated across individual oysters is useful for risk assessment models. Six sets of thirty individual Crassostrea gigas oysters were tested for norovirus concentration levels by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR): three from a commercial harvest site, and three post-depuration. Five sets had norovirus GII means above the limit of quantification (LOQ), and one below the LOQ, but above the limit of detection. No norovirus GI was detected in pooled tests, and individual oysters were not tested for norovirus GI. Depuration was shown to reduce the mean concentration of GII copies, but not to affect the shape of the distribution around the mean. Deconvoluting the uncertainty of the method, the coefficient of variation was stationary (0.45 ± 0.2). The best fit distribution was either a lognormal distribution or a gamma. Multiplying these distributions by the weight of oyster digestive tissues gave an estimate for the count mean. This was used as the parameter λ in three compound Poisson distributions: Poisson-lognormal, Poisson-gamma, and Poisson-K. No model was found to fit better than the others, with advantages for each. All three could be used in future risk assessments. Preliminary validation of sampling uncertainty using repeated testing data from a previous study suggests that these results have predictive power.


Research – Fingerprinting of human noroviruses co-infections in a possible foodborne outbreak by metagenomics

Science Direct

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the primary non-bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we reported a co-infection of HuNoVs with different genotypes during an outbreak of gastroenteritis in travelers. The aim was to trace the source and transmission patterns of the infections using next-generation sequencing (NGS). An investigation was conducted on a cross-border travel group who came back to China from Thailand for symptoms of gastroenteritis. Anal swabs were collected from 23 people and samples were analyzed using RT-qPCR. A total of 11 samples tested positive for HuNoVs. All samples tested negative for bacterial pathogens in the surveillance list. Positive samples for HuNoVs were further analyzed using NGS. Seven out of 11 positive samples were sequenced and 16 viral genome sequences for 10 different strains of HuNoVs were obtained. We demonstrated that the outbreak was associated with co-infection of multiple genotypes of HuNoVs and the source of infections was probably contaminated water or food. Besides, four different HuNoVs genotypes (GI.5[P12], GIX.1[GII·P15], GI.7[P7] and GII.8[P8]) were identified in one patient. Co-infection with both genogroup GI and GII, and co-infection with two different P types ([P10] and [P13]) of genotype GI.3 were identified in different patients. Findings from this study show that individuals can be simultaneously infected with multiple strains of HuNoVs and NGS can help investigating these issues. Further, this study shows that food and water are potential vehicles for transmission of multiple foodborne viruses.