Category Archives: Norovirus

Research – Prevalence of Human Noroviruses in Commercial Food Establishment Bathrooms

Journal of Food Protection

Although transmission of human norovirus in food establishments is commonly attributed to consumption of contaminated food, transmission via contaminated environmental surfaces, such as those in bathrooms, may also play a role. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of human norovirus on bathroom surfaces in commercial food establishments in New Jersey, Ohio, and South Carolina under nonoutbreak conditions and to determine characteristics associated with the presence of human norovirus. Food establishments (751) were randomly selected from nine counties in each state. Four surfaces (underside of toilet seat, flush handle of toilet, inner door handle of stall or outer door, and sink faucet handle) were swabbed in male and female bathrooms using premoistened macrofoam swabs. A checklist was used to collect information about the characteristics, materials, and mechanisms of objects in bathrooms. In total, 61 (1.5%) of 4,163 swabs tested were presumptively positive for human norovirus, 9 of which were confirmed by sequencing. Some factors associated with the presence of human norovirus included being from South Carolina (odd ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 4.9; P < 0.05) or New Jersey (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.9 to 3.3; 0.05 < P < 0.10), being a chain establishment (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.3; P < 0.05), being a unisex bathroom (versus male: OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.9 to 4.1; 0.05 < P < 0.10; versus female: OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.7; P < 0.05), having a touchless outer door handle (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.79 to 13.63; 0.05 < P < 0.10), and having an automatic flush toilet (OR, 2.5, 95% CI, 1.1 to 5.3; 0.05 < P < 0.10). Our findings confirm that the presence of human norovirus on bathroom surfaces in commercial food establishments under nonoutbreak conditions is a rare event. Therefore, routine environmental monitoring for human norovirus contamination during nonoutbreak periods is not an efficient method of monitoring norovirus infection risk.

RASFF Alerts – Norovirus – Live Oysters – Frozen Raspberry

kswfoodworld food safety poisoning

RASFF-norovirus (GI/2g) in live oysters from France in Italy

RASFF-norovirus (GII /25g) in frozen raspberry from Serbia in Hungary

Canada – Norovirus likely from sewage discharge during herring run

Food Safety News

Public health officials on Vancouver Island, off Canada’s Pacific Coast, suspect that the likely source of a norovirus outbreak associated with the March herring run was from untreated sewage associated with marine operations.

Untreated sewage also was blamed for shellfish farm closures in Baynes Sound this year.

But the Public Health Agency of Canada, working with provincial public health partners in investigating the Norovirus outbreak, noted that the precise cause of the contamination has not been identified.

“There are a number of potential risk factors, one of which is the herring fleet in Deep Bay,” said Greg Thomas, executive director of the Herring Conservation and Research Society.

RASFF Alerts – Norovirus – Live Oysters

kswfoodworld food safety poisoning

RASFF-norovirus (GI /g) in live oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from the Netherlands in Italy

 

Information – Holland America cruise line has all but put an end to the self-serve buffet. – Norovirus

Barf Blog

Darren Cartwright of Yahoo News writes the Holland America Line has literally taken a hands-on, or make that hands-off, approach and heavily restricted self-service in the general dining areas of its ships.

The move could be just what’s needed to restore Australia’s faith in the industry following four gastro outbreaks on Holland America’s sister line Princess Cruises over the past 15 months.

The most recent was in January when some 200 passengers went down with the norovirus aboard the Sea Princess during a tour of New Zealand.

Research – Prevalence of Human Noroviruses in Commercial Food Establishment Bathrooms

Journal of Food Protection

Although transmission of human norovirus in food establishments is commonly attributed to consumption of contaminated food, transmission via contaminated environmental surfaces, such as those in bathrooms, may also play a role. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of human norovirus on bathroom surfaces in commercial food establishments in New Jersey, Ohio, and South Carolina under nonoutbreak conditions and to determine characteristics associated with the presence of human norovirus. Food establishments (751) were randomly selected from nine counties in each state. Four surfaces (underside of toilet seat, flush handle of toilet, inner door handle of stall or outer door, and sink faucet handle) were swabbed in male and female bathrooms using premoistened macrofoam swabs. A checklist was used to collect information about the characteristics, materials, and mechanisms of objects in bathrooms. In total, 61 (1.5%) of 4,163 swabs tested were presumptively positive for human norovirus, 9 of which were confirmed by sequencing. Some factors associated with the presence of human norovirus included being from South Carolina (odd ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 4.9; P < 0.05) or New Jersey (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.9 to 3.3; 0.05 < P < 0.10), being a chain establishment (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.3; P < 0.05), being a unisex bathroom (versus male: OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.9 to 4.1; 0.05 < P < 0.10; versus female: OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.7; P < 0.05), having a touchless outer door handle (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.79 to 13.63; 0.05 < P < 0.10), and having an automatic flush toilet (OR, 2.5, 95% CI, 1.1 to 5.3; 0.05 < P < 0.10). Our findings confirm that the presence of human norovirus on bathroom surfaces in commercial food establishments under nonoutbreak conditions is a rare event. Therefore, routine environmental monitoring for human norovirus contamination during nonoutbreak periods is not an efficient method of monitoring norovirus infection risk.

RASFF Alerts – Norovirus – Oysters

kswfoodworld food safety poisoning

RASFF-norovirus (Gl/2g) in oysters from the Netherlands in Belgium

RASFF-norovirus (GI/ 2g) in live oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from France, via the Netherlands in Belgium

RASFF-norovirus (GII/2g) in live oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from France in Italy

RASFF-norovirus (GI and GII /2g) in live oysters from France in Italy