Category Archives: Food Virus

RASFF Alert – Norovirus – Oysters


Presence of Norovirus genogroup I and II in oysters from Spain in Italy

RASFF Alert – Norovirus – Mussels


Norovirus genogroup II in mussels from Spain in Portugal

What is Sapovirus?

Fukushihoken Metro

Sapovirus - Wikipedia

Photo – Graham Beards at English Wikipedia

Like norovirus, Sapovirus is a virus belonging to the Caliciviridae family which multiplies in the mucous membranes of the human small intestine.
In 2002, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses officially gave this virus the name of “Sapovirus; prior to that time it was known as the “Sapporo virus.”
The “Sapo” in “Sapovirus” is derived from Sapporo, Japan, where the virus was discovered.
Previously, Sapovirus was believed to be the cause of sporadic gastroenteritis mainly in children, but in recent years reports have been on the rise of mass outbreaks such as food poisoning..

Like norovirus, Sapovirus causes gastroenteritis throughout the year.
Epidemiological studies have strongly identified the eating of raw bivalves such as oysters and food prep workers carrying the virus as being part of the virus’ transmission route. In addition, as there have been cases of mass outbreaks at facilities such as schools and day cares where no raw oysters were eaten, person to person secondary infection is suspected to exist.
In recent years, the development and popularization of a new testing method (real-time PCR) has clarified the relationship between Sapovirus and food poisoning.

Read more at the link above and below


USA – FDA Advises Restaurants and Retailers Not to Serve or Sell and Consumers Not to Eat Certain Potentially Contaminated Raw Oysters from Dai One Foods Co., Ltd, Republic of Korea – Sapovirus



  • Restaurants and food retailers that have received shipments of frozen half shell oysters harvested on 2/6/2022 from Designated Area No. II, and exported by Dai One Food Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea (ROK).
  • Consumers, especially those who are or could become pregnant, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems, who have recently consumed raw oysters in Alabama (AL), California (CA), Florida (FL), Georgia (GA), Maryland (MD), New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), Nevada (NV), North Carolina (NC), Pennsylvania (PA), South Carolina (SC), Tennessee (TN), or Virginia (VA) and suspect they have food poisoning should seek medical care immediately.


  • Frozen half shell oysters harvested on 2/6/2022 from Designated Area No. II, Dai One Food Co., ROK. The oysters were shipped from the ROK and distributed in the following states: Alabama (AL), California (CA), Florida (FL), Georgia (GA), Maryland (MD), New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), Nevada (NV), North Carolina (NC), Pennsylvania (PA), South Carolina (SC), Tennessee (TN), and Virginia (VA).
  • The Korean firm has recalled frozen half shell oysters, frozen oyster IQF, and frozen oyster block harvested from the same harvest area on 2/6/2022.


The FDA is advising consumers not to eat, and restaurants and food retailers not to sell, and to dispose of Dai One Food Co. frozen half shell oysters with a harvest date of 2/6/2022 from Designated Area No. II and sold in the states named above.

Summary of Problem and Scope

The Southern Nevada Health District notified the FDA of two clusters of illnesses from individuals that consumed raw oysters at a restaurant in Las Vegas on 10/28/2022 and 11/5/2022. To date, the Southern Nevada Health District reports one confirmed and nine potential sapovirus illnesses.

FDA Actions

The FDA is issuing this alert advising consumers to not eat and restaurants and food retailers to not sell oysters harvested on 2/6/2022 from Designated Area No. II from Dai One Food Co in ROK, due to possible sapovirus contamination. The FDA notified State contacts and the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) of the import and harvest details.

The FDA is awaiting information on further interstate distribution of the oysters and will continue to monitor the investigation and provide assistance to state authorities as needed.

Symptoms of Sapovirus

Sapoviruses cause a sporadic gastroenteritis, similar to norovirus, in populations ranging from children to the elderly. The infections are more frequent in children under age 5 than in adults. The most common symptoms of sapovirus are diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and stomach pain. Other symptoms include fever, headache, and body ache.

Most people infected with sapovirus begin to develop symptoms 12 to 48 hours after infection. Symptoms usually last one to four days.

RASFF Alert – Norovirus – Clams


Norovirus genogroup II in clams (Chamelea gallina) from Italy in Spain

RASFF Alerts – Norovirus – Clams


Detection of norovirus genogroup I and II in japonica clam from Portugal in Spain


Norovirus Genogroup I in Chamelea gallina from Italy in Spain

Research – Hepatitis A outbreak in Australia linked to imported Medjool dates, June–September 202

Gov Au


Imported, minimally processed food products have been historically associated with several hepati-tis A outbreaks in Australia. Here, we report the first known hepatitis A outbreak in Australia linked to consumption of imported fresh Medjool dates. Between June and September 2021, six genetically identical hepatitis A cases were notified in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. All cases reported date consumption during their exposure period. The implicated dates were positive for hepatitis A virus (HAV) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Rapid detection of this outbreak and the swift implementation of control measures was facilitated by two key factors. Firstly, Australian international border closures implemented in response to the COVID-19 pan-demic meant that a common locally-acquired, as opposed to travel-acquired, source for cases was strongly suspected. Secondly, prompt awareness of a hepatitis A outbreak in the United Kingdom (which was found to be associated with date consumption) allowed for early hypothesis generation and investigation. This paper details the epidemiological and microbiological factors involved in this outbreak investigation and the actions taken to mitigate public health risk.

New Zealand – Hepatitis A: Two more cases detected in imported frozen berry outbreak


Two additional cases of hepatitis A have been detected in the past week, linked to the recent imported frozen berry outbreak.

This brings the number of confirmed locally acquired cases linked to the outbreak to 23 in total, the Ministry of Health said on Thursday afternoon.

Of these, 11 (48%) have required hospital care.

As of Thursday, 17 cases have an identical sequence profile, indicating they likely came from the same source. Sequencing of the remaining six cases is pending.

USA – Norovirus Sickened 173 at D. C. Cobb’s Restaurant in Illinois

Food Poisoning Bulletin


A norovirus outbreak sickened 173 people at D. C. Cobb’s restaurant in McHenry, Illinois in August 2022, according to an investigation by the McHenry County Department of Health (MCDH). Two of those patients were hospitalized. The last time this investigation was updated was on September 16, 2022, when it was reported that 16 people were sick after eating at that restaurant. The restaurant is located at 1204 North Green Street in McHenry.

Can noroviruses be transmitted through food?


Food Borne Illness - Norovirus -CDC Photo

In winter, an increase in norovirus cases can be expected, as the infection is called the winter plague in some languages ​​(eg vinterkräksjuka in Swedish). The main symptoms of norovirus infection are malaise, vomiting, diarrhea, fever and abdominal pain.

The virus is highly contagious and only a few viruses are needed to cause infection. Noroviruses can be transmitted through food from people who are ill or have recently been ill with norovirus. There are examples of norovirus being transmitted through food in Iceland and abroad, such as frozen raspberries, oysters and food from restaurants. Such infections can cause group infections.

For example, the consumption of frozen raspberries caused a widespread norovirus infection in Denmark a few years ago. Subsequently, the Danes established rules that frozen raspberries should be heated before consumption, and such instructions can often be seen on packaging.

But how can the virus be prevented from spreading to food at home, in canteens, restaurants and other food businesses?

  • The production, cooking and serving of food should be avoided during illness and for at least 48 hours. after the symptoms are over.
  • Wash hands before handling food.
  • Wash hands before eating
  • Offer options for hand disinfection at the buffet.
  • Prevent utensil handles from coming into contact with food.
  • Food companies have clear rules regarding staff illness and their return.

The risk of norovirus being transmitted through food can be reduced if these guidelines are followed.

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