Category Archives: lactic acid bacteria

Research – Meat Microflora and the Quality of Meat Products


Meat and meat products are not only a source of nutrients for humans [1,2], but also an excellent substrate for the development of many microorganisms [3]. Fresh meat is always exposed to the action of many species of microorganisms, causing deterioration of its sensory quality and limiting its usefulness, both culinary and technological. The microbiological quality of meat is important both for consumers and from a safety point of view. Meat can be a habitat for saprophytic and pathogenic microorganisms that can deteriorate its quality or threaten the safety of consumers [1,4].
However, microorganisms present in meat products are not always a threat. Such microorganisms include lactic acid bacteria present in meat, which ferment sugars into lactic acid. This has a positive effect on the durability of the manufactured products. The presence and growth of lactic acid bacteria under controlled conditions have long been used in meat processing [5]. This enables the production of products with characteristic and desirable quality features, and at the same time with an extended shelf life. Running lactic acid fermentation processes in optimal conditions, however, often requires the use of highly selected microorganisms with precisely defined and stable characteristics. Such microorganisms are then deliberately introduced into meat in a certain amount during technological processes [5].
Due to the role played by starter cultures in meat products, they can be divided into the following groups: acidifying cultures, cultures supporting the curing process (denitrifying cultures) and stabilizing the curing color, cultures flavoring meat products and cultures stabilizing microbiological products (extending shelf life) [5,6].
A less durable raw material than the meat of animals is fish meat, which deteriorates faster and therefore should be frozen and stored at −20 °C. The cause of spoilage is most often psychrophilic microorganisms that develop at temperatures close to 0 °C. One way to improve the freshness and extend the shelf life of fish is multifunctional composite coatings. They are an interesting alternative to preserve the quality of fish fillets, but also to improve the quality of meat [7].
Appropriate use of selected strains of lactic acid bacteria may be useful in improving the microbiological quality of meat and meat products during storage. The purpose of this Special Issue was to compile original research and review papers covering various aspects of the impact of meat microflora on the quality characteristics and safety of meat and meat products.

Research – Researchers explore probiotics to control Campylobacter


On-farm control measures are required to mitigate the risk of the bacteria being transmitted to humans working with poultry and people who visit poultry farms. Abdelaziz’s lab is studying the impact of inoculating eggs (in-ovo) with probiotics on gut health and immune system development of broilers before they hatch.

Probiotics are live bacteria, fungi, or yeasts that help poultry maintain healthy digestive systems. They are increasingly being included in poultry diets as alternatives to antibiotics. Abdelaziz and his team believe in-ovo technology can be used to deliver probiotics to chicken embryos and help boost chicks’ immune systems before they hatch.

During their investigation, Abdelaziz and his team have found certain probiotics (lactobacilli) applied in-ovo to chick embryos increased immune-related genes in the chicks’ guts which could promote healthy immune systems of chick embryos. Future studies will investigate whether Lactobacillus-induced immune responses protect against harmful microorganisms after chicks hatch.

Research – Special Issue: Beneficial Properties and Safety of Lactic Acid Bacteria


The application of LAB in various sectors, including in the biotechnical and food industry, in human and veterinary practice, and in health-promoting practices and cosmetics, has been the subject of intensive research across the globe, with a range of traditional and innovative methods currently being explored. The rediscovery of old practices, the establishment of new processes based on the production and application of different metabolites produced by LAB, and the formation of novel perspectives on the fermentation processes initiated by LAB, have become areas of significant interest in recent years. Various antimicrobial peptides, including bacteriocins, have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotics or have been suggested for use as their synergistic “partners”. The application field of probiotics is being widened to encompass new innovative areas that are targeted towards personalized practice, with the aim of improving human health. An increasingly extensive understanding of bioactive peptides has heralded their application in practices that are alternative or complementary to Western medicine. Approaches to bio-preservation require fewer chemical preservatives and are, currently, thoroughly explored in food research. The enrichment and fortification of food products with biologically active metabolites, including vitamins, antimicrobials, and immunomodulators, are only some of the research areas that ought to be explored as options for the application of various LAB in the food industry.
The concepts associated with the beneficial properties and safety of LAB have been, and always need to be, jointly explored. Even if several LAB strains have been applied historically as safe and beneficial cultures, various other representatives of LAB have been documented as human and animal pathogens, as phytopathogens, and as also including strains associated with spoilage and deterioration [1]. LAB represent a universe of varied microorganisms, with all of them characterized as Gram-positive, catalase negative, as possessing a common metabolism and as initiating the formation of a similar end product (lactic acid) as a result of carbohydrate fermentation [2]. As a diverse group of microorganisms, they are adapted to various ecosystems and environmental conditions, and can grow at different temperatures and use a variety of carbon sources [1,2]. They are associated with virtually all living forms, from simple eukaryotic organisms and plant material, to the skin and GIT of vertebrates, insects, mollusks, crustaceans, etc. They may be described as either beneficial or as pathogens, but they always possess a clear ecological role in numerous life cycles [2]. Of particular note are species such as Enterococcus spp., some of which are unmistakably opportunistic pathogens and, when associated with vancomycin resistance, pose a serious health threat to humans and to animals [3]; these pathogens are typically associated with nosocomial infections [3]. Simultaneously, however, LAB also comprise species that play a beneficial role in the production of various plants, dairy and meat fermented food products [4], or even as probiotics [5]. It has been suggested that enterococci are producers of bacteriocins, some of which can be applied in the control of food-borne and hospital-associated (human and veterinary) pathogens [6]. However, before proposing a strain, even one belonging to a species with a history of safe application, its safety properties must be appropriately evaluated; this is a necessary and essential step that must be completed prior to its application in food fermentation, as a probiotic for human and animals, in human and veterinary medicine, or in agricultural practices. The novel tools utilized in the evaluation of the safety of microbial cultures, including DNA-associated experimental approaches, have become routine in the last two decades. Considering this, the validation of safety, both of new microbial and currently applied cultures, is now considered essential. In addition to “classical” PCR-based approaches, whole genome sequencing and the appropriate analysis of the generated data have become routine in the evaluation of the safety profile of microbial cultures [7,8,9].

Research – Bread Biopreservation through the Addition of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Sourdough



Nowadays, the consumer seeks to replace synthetic preservatives with biopreservation methods, such as sourdough in bread. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter cultures in many food products. In this work, commercial yeast bread and sourdough breads were prepared as controls, as well as sourdough breads with L. plantarum 5L1 lyophilized. The impact of L. plantarum 5L1 on the properties of bread was studied. Antifungal compounds and the impact on the protein fraction by the different treatments in doughs and breads were also analyzed. In addition, the biopreservation capacity of the treatments in breads contaminated with fungi was studied and the mycotoxin content was analyzed. The results showed significant differences with respect to the controls in the properties of the bread and a higher total phenolic and lactic acid content in breads with higher amounts of L. plantarum 5L1. In addition, there was a higher content of alcohol and esters. Furthermore, adding this starter culture produced hydrolysis of the 50 kDa band proteins. Finally, the higher concentration of L. plantarum 5L1 delayed fungal growth and reduced the content of AFB1 and AFB2 compared to the control.

Research – Microbiological Changes during Long-Storage of Beef Meat under Different Temperature and Vacuum-Packaging Conditions



We evaluated a combination of two temperatures and two packaging materials for long-term storage of vacuum-packaged (VP) beef striploins. Microbial populations and microbiome composition were monitored during refrigerated storage (120 days between 0–1.5 °C) and refrigerated-then-frozen storage (28 days between 0–1.5 °C then 92 days at −20 °C) under low-O2 permeability VP and high-O2 permeability VP with an antimicrobial (VPAM). Pseudomonas (PSE) and Enterobacteriaceae (EB) counts in VPAM samples were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in VP samples at 28, 45, 90, and 120 days of storage. Microbiome data showed that bacteria of the genera Serratia and Brochothrix were more abundant in VPAM samples at 120 days, while lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominated in VP samples. Frozen temperatures inhibited microbial growth and maintained a relatively stable microbiome. Refrigerated and frozen VPAM samples showed the greatest difference in the predicted metabolic functions at the end of storage driven by the microbiome composition, dominated by PSE and LAB, respectively. Although no signs of visible meat deterioration were observed in any sample, this study suggests that VP meat refrigerated and then frozen achieved better microbiological indicators at the end of the storage period.

Research – Recent Trends and Applications of Nanoencapsulated Bacteriocins against Microbes in Food Quality and Safety



Bacteriocins are ribosomal-synthesized peptides or proteins produced by bacterial strains and can inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Numerous factors influence the potential activity of bacteriocins in food matrices. For example, food additives usage, chemical composition, physical conditions of food, and sensitivity of proteolytic enzymes can constrain the application of bacteriocins as beneficial food preservatives. However, novel bacteriocin nanoencapsulation has appeared as an encouraging solution. In this review, we highlight the bacteriocins produced by Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria including lactic acid bacteria that have shown positive results as potential food preservatives. In addition, this review encompasses the major focus on bacteriocins encapsulation with nanotechnology to enhance the antimicrobial action of bacteriocins. Several strategies can be employed to encapsulate bacteriocins; however, the nanotechnological approach is one of the most effective strategies for avoiding limitations. Nanoparticles such as liposomes, chitosan, protein, and polysaccharides have been discussed to show their importance in the nanoencapsulation method. The nanoparticles are combined with bacteriocins to develop the nano-encapsulated bacteriocins from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including LAB. In food systems, nanoencapsulation enhances the stability and antimicrobial functionality of active peptides. This nanotechnological application provides a formulation of a broad range of antimicrobial peptides at the industry-scale level. Nano-formulated bacteriocins have been discussed along with examples to show a broader antimicrobial spectrum, increase bacteriocins’ applicability, extend antimicrobial spectrum and enhance stability.

Research – Effect of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) on the Quality and Safety of Greek Yogurt



Greek yogurt is a strained yogurt with a high protein content that brings nutritional benefits. To enhance the functional benefits of Greek yogurt, Greek yogurt was prepared with various combinations of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Streptococcus thermophilusLactobacillus bulgaricusLactobacillus gasseri BNR17, and Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714). Effects of probiotic LAB on quality, sensory, and microbiological characteristics of Greek yogurt were then compared. Among samples, Greek yogurt fermented by S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus showed the highest changes of pH and titratable acidity during 21 d of storage at 4 °C. Greek yogurt fermented with L. plantarum HY7714 had a higher viscosity than other samples. Greek yogurt fermented with S. thermophilusL. bulgaricusL. gasseri BNR17, and L. plantarum HY7714 showed superior physicochemical properties and received the highest preference score from sensory evaluation among samples. Overall, the population of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) was more effectively reduced in Greek yogurt fermented with probiotic LAB than in commercial Greek yogurt during storage at 4, 10, and 25 °C. Thus, the addition of L. gasseri BNR17 and L. plantarum HY7714 as starter cultures could enhance the microbial safety of Greek yogurt and sensory acceptance by consumers.

Luxembourg – RECALL: 0% SUGAR SWEET CHILI SAUCE – Lactic Acid Bacteria



Potential presence of lactic acid bacteria causing the packaging to swell

Action is recalling the following product:

Last name 0% Sugar Sweet Chilli Sauce
Unity 250ml
bar code 8718836395338
Use-by date (DLC) 01/01/2024; 02/01/2024; 03/01/2024

Danger  : Abnormal development of lactic acid bacteria that can cause the packaging to swell

The development of lactic acid bacteria can cause the packaging to swell. The product itself does not generally pose a risk to public health if consumed.

The Food Safety Division advises, however, not to consume this product and to return it to the distributor. 

France – Sweet Chili Sauce 0% – 250ml – Lactic Acid Bacteria

Gov france

Identification information of the recalled product

  • Product category Feed
  • Product subcategory Soups, sauces and condiments
  • Product brand name Sweet Chili Sauce 0% – 250ml
  • Model names or references Sweet Chili Sauce 0% – 250ml
  • Identification of products
    see attached product list
  • Products List EN_Product_recall__Action_-_Chile.pdf Attachment
  • Storage temperature Product to be stored at room temperature
  • Geographic area of ​​sale Whole France
  • Distributors STOCK

Practical information regarding the recall

  • Reason for recall The reason is that a potential lactic acid bacteria infection can cause the packaging to swell. The product itself poses no risk to public health in the event of accidental consumption.

Netherlands – Safety Warning Remia Tomato Ketchup 500ml – Lactic Acid Bacteria


Remia CV retrieves the Remia Tomato Ketchup. This only concerns products purchased from Nettorama, Jan Linders, Dirk, Dekamarkt, Vomar, Plus, Coop or Picnic. The reason is a possible lactic acid bacteria contamination that causes the packaging to bulge. The product itself poses no danger to public health if consumed. Other Remia CV products are not affected by this issue and are suitable for sale and consumption.

See Remia’s website

Which product is it?

  • Remia Tomato Ketchup 500ml
  • Barcode: 8710448636977
  • Lot number: L2182
  • Best Before: 07-2023

For more information, customers can contact Remia consumer service on the toll-free telephone number 0800-0222555.


The Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority