Category Archives: Multi Drug Resistant

CDC issues Salmonella alert for people traveling to Mexico

Food Safety News

Public health officials in the United States are warning travellers who have spent time in Mexico to be aware of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella Newport.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that some travellers have been infected with the strains, which have developed the ability to defeat drugs designed to kill them. Salmonella infections from the strains can be difficult to treat and result in very serious illnesses.

“Many travelers with MDR (multidrug-resistant) Salmonella Newport infections reported eating beef, cheese — including queso fresco and Oaxaca— beef jerky, or dried beef — carne seca — before they got sick,” according to the alert from the CDC.

Research – Salmonella and Campylobacter continue to show high levels of antibiotic resistance

EFSA

Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter bacteria is still high, says a report released today by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

Campylobacteriosis was the most reported zoonosis in the EU in 2020 and the most frequently reported cause of foodborne illness. Campylobacter bacteria from humans and poultry continues to show very high resistance to ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, that is commonly used to treat some types of bacterial human infection.

Increasing trends of resistance against the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics has been observed in humans and broilers for Campylobacter jejuni. In Salmonella Enteritidis, the most common type of Salmonella in humans, increasing trends of resistance to the quinolone/fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics were observed. In animals, resistance to these antibiotics in Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella Enteritidis were generally moderate to high.

However, despite the increasing trends of resistance against certain antibiotics, simultaneous resistance to two critically important antibiotics – remains low for E. coliSalmonella and Campylobacter in bacteria from both humans and food-producing animals.

A decline in resistance to tetracyclines and ampicillin in Salmonella from humans was observed in nine and ten countries, respectively, over the period 2016-2020, and this was particularly evident in Salmonella Typhimurium. Despite the decline, resistance to these antibiotics still remains high in bacteria from both humans and animals.

Furthermore, in more than half of the European Union countries, a statistically significant decreasing trend in the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli was observed in food-producing animals. This is an important finding as particular strains of ESBL-producing E. coli are responsible for serious infections in humans.

Carbapenem resistance remains extremely rare in E. coli and Salmonella from food-producing animals. Carbapenems are a class of last resort antibiotics and any findings showing resistance to these in zoonotic bacteria are concerning.

Although findings and trends are consistent with data reported in previous years, the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on the amount of data reported, particularly with regards to public health.

An interactive data visualisation tool shows resistance levels in humans, animals and food, country-by-country in 2019 and 2020.

Additionally, the human food and waterborne antibiotic resistance data is published in ECDC’s Surveillance Atlas of Infectious Diseases (under the diseases campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis and shigellosis, respectively).

Research – Hygiene indicators and Salmonella sp. on swine carcass surfaces from two slaughterhouses in northern Portugal.

Journal of Food Protection

The monitorization of carcass surfaces contamination along the slaughter lines enables the verification of the slaughter operations hygiene and the good manufacturing practices. Pork meat is a common source of human non-typhoidal salmonellosis, one of the most frequently reported foodborne illnesses worldwide. This study aimed to gather data on microbial loads in carcass surfaces in two slaughterhouses, before and after evisceration. Salmonella enterica search was made after evisceration, due to the frequent reference to pork as being a common carrier of this microorganism. The contamination of carcass surfaces was evaluated by delimitation of surface area with sterilized templates (100 cm2), and sampled by gauze swabs. Enumeration of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli was performed. The detection of Salmonella was performed for carcass surfaces after evisceration, and from animal liver and floor drains (environmental). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and E. coli counts on the external surfaces, with higher counts after evisceration. The neck and abdominal area presented higher levels for mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli, and a high prevalence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected only in one of the studied slaughterhouses; 19 out of 259 analysed carcass samples were positive for Salmonella (7.3%). Salmonella was also detected in two livers and in two floor drains. A collection of 52 Salmonella isolates (44 from carcasses, 5 from livers, 3 from drains) was gathered. Three serovars of Salmonella were identified (Typhimurium 4,5:i- , Wernigerone and Derby), and 53.8% of isolates were multidrug-resistant. The results demonstrate the need for continuous improvement of slaughtering operations and good manufacturing practices, to ensure food safety of pork produced in Portugal.

Research – Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Serotype Anatum in Travelers and Seafood from Asia, United States

CDC

A multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Anatum strain reported in Taiwan was isolated in the United States from patients and from seafood imported from Asia. Isolates harbored 11 resistance determinants, including quinolone and inducible cephalosporin resistance genes. Most patients had traveled to Asia. These findings underscore the need for global One Health resistance surveillance.

Research – UK study: Food not likely source of drug resistant E coli.

Cidrap

CDC E.coli

Image CDC

A large genomic epidemiology study by scientists in the United Kingdom has found that most bloodstream infections caused by drug-resistant Escherichia coli involve human-associated strains of the pathogen, with little contribution from the food chain.

The study, published yesterday in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, found that the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL) E coli sequence type (ST) 131 was the predominant strain found in bloodstream isolates, as well as in samples collected from human feces and sewage, while isolates from meat, veterinary diagnostic samples, and farm runoff were dominated by other ESBL E coli sequence types. Few drug-resistant E coli strains were shared among the animal and human isolates.

The authors of the study say the findings suggest that while ESBL E coli strains are widespread in humans, animals, and the environment, there’s little crossover between these strains, and efforts to reduce invasive ESBL E coli infections should focus on limiting human transmission.

Research -Antibiotic-free poultry meat less likely to harbor multidrug-resistant Salmonella

CIDRAP Campylobacter kswfoodworld

An analysis by researchers in Pennsylvania found that meat from conventionally raised poultry harbored nearly twice as much multidrug-resistant Salmonella as meat from antibiotic-free poultry, according to a study reported today at IDWeek 2019.

The findings come from a study conducted by scientists with the Pennsylvania Department of Health, Penn State College of Medicine, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that examined non-typhoidal Salmonella cultures from nearly 3,500 samples of chicken and turkey bought from randomly selected stores in Pennsylvania from 2008 through 2017. Analysis of the Salmonella cultures found that 55% of those from conventionally raised poultry meat were resistant to three or more antibiotic classes, compared with 28% of the cultures from the antibiotic-free poultry meat.

Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness, affecting more than 1.2 million Americans each year. While most cases are self-limiting, some salmonellosis cases require antibiotics and hospitalization. Drug-resistant Salmonella is harder to treat and can cause more severe and sometimes deadly infections.

Research – Perception Problems for Multidrug-Resistant Organisms

Contagion Live

We’ve all seen the statistics—each year in the United States, 2 million people will get an antibiotic-resistant infection and at least 23,000 will die as a result of them. Moreover, multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) represent an increasing threat to global health as it’s estimated that their mortality rates will exceed those of cancer by 2050. It’s easy to see such data and focus on how to cut down the rates or how to increase antimicrobial stewardship without thinking about the perceptions or emotional impact of these infections.

How do health care workers experience MDROs? What about patients? These types of questions are rarely discussed in infection prevention or antimicrobial resistance efforts but, nonetheless, play a critical role. A new study from a research team in Germany sought to truly understand how these perceptions affect efforts such as hand hygiene, disinfection, and isolation. We all too often focus on the isolation and rapid identification of patients with MDROs but rarely discuss the social and psychological implications of such infections.

Investigators used a socio-constructivist focus and a mixed-method approach to conduct the study, which was broken into sections that included discussions, peer-assisted objective-structured clinical examination, and constructive efforts like card surveys and papers. Topics included infectious diseases and microbiology, basic hygiene procedures, communication techniques, and special protective hazardous material equipment. The research team had 51 health care workers from 13 professions across 5 hospitals participate in this training and data collection. Overall, they found that there are significant barriers both in educating clinicians and then informing patients and family members, and also in handling emotional responses in patients diagnosed and isolated with an MDRO infection.

USA – More pig ear dog treats recalled in multistate outbreak

Food Safety News

Dog Goods USA LLC of Tobyhanna, PA joins the list of companies involved in a federal and state investigation regarding contaminated pig ear dog treats that are likely responsible for a multistate, multidrug-resistant Salmonella outbreak. 

Dog Goods USA LLC has recalled its Chef Toby Pig Ears Treats because they have the potential to be contaminated with Salmonella, according to a notice posted by the Food and Drug Administration. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is working with the FDA and several state agencies on the outbreak investigation.

According to the recall notice, the affected product includes non-irradiated bulk and packaged pig ears branded Chef Toby Pig Ears, due to potential Salmonella contamination.

USA – Outbreak of Multidrug-Resistant Shigella sonnei Infections in a Retirement Community — Vermont, October–November 2018

CDC

On October 22, 2018, the Vermont Department of Health (VDH) notified CDC’s Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch of an outbreak of diarrhea caused by Shigella sonnei among residents, visitors, and staff members of a retirement community in Chittenden County, the state’s most populous county. High-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis predicted initial isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and were closely related to a concurrent multistate cluster (differing by 0–11 SNPs). In the United States, rates of MDR shigellosis are increasing (1); outbreaks of MDR shigellosis are more common among men who have sex with men and are rare in retirement community settings (2). CDC collaborated with VDH to identify additional cases, determine transmission routes, and recommend prevention and control measures.