Category Archives: drug resistant

CDC issues Salmonella alert for people traveling to Mexico

Food Safety News

Public health officials in the United States are warning travellers who have spent time in Mexico to be aware of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella Newport.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that some travellers have been infected with the strains, which have developed the ability to defeat drugs designed to kill them. Salmonella infections from the strains can be difficult to treat and result in very serious illnesses.

“Many travelers with MDR (multidrug-resistant) Salmonella Newport infections reported eating beef, cheese — including queso fresco and Oaxaca— beef jerky, or dried beef — carne seca — before they got sick,” according to the alert from the CDC.

Research – Hygiene indicators and Salmonella sp. on swine carcass surfaces from two slaughterhouses in northern Portugal.

Journal of Food Protection

The monitorization of carcass surfaces contamination along the slaughter lines enables the verification of the slaughter operations hygiene and the good manufacturing practices. Pork meat is a common source of human non-typhoidal salmonellosis, one of the most frequently reported foodborne illnesses worldwide. This study aimed to gather data on microbial loads in carcass surfaces in two slaughterhouses, before and after evisceration. Salmonella enterica search was made after evisceration, due to the frequent reference to pork as being a common carrier of this microorganism. The contamination of carcass surfaces was evaluated by delimitation of surface area with sterilized templates (100 cm2), and sampled by gauze swabs. Enumeration of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli was performed. The detection of Salmonella was performed for carcass surfaces after evisceration, and from animal liver and floor drains (environmental). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and E. coli counts on the external surfaces, with higher counts after evisceration. The neck and abdominal area presented higher levels for mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli, and a high prevalence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected only in one of the studied slaughterhouses; 19 out of 259 analysed carcass samples were positive for Salmonella (7.3%). Salmonella was also detected in two livers and in two floor drains. A collection of 52 Salmonella isolates (44 from carcasses, 5 from livers, 3 from drains) was gathered. Three serovars of Salmonella were identified (Typhimurium 4,5:i- , Wernigerone and Derby), and 53.8% of isolates were multidrug-resistant. The results demonstrate the need for continuous improvement of slaughtering operations and good manufacturing practices, to ensure food safety of pork produced in Portugal.

Research – Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Serotype Anatum in Travelers and Seafood from Asia, United States

CDC

A multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Anatum strain reported in Taiwan was isolated in the United States from patients and from seafood imported from Asia. Isolates harbored 11 resistance determinants, including quinolone and inducible cephalosporin resistance genes. Most patients had traveled to Asia. These findings underscore the need for global One Health resistance surveillance.

Research – UK study: Food not likely source of drug resistant E coli.

Cidrap

CDC E.coli

Image CDC

A large genomic epidemiology study by scientists in the United Kingdom has found that most bloodstream infections caused by drug-resistant Escherichia coli involve human-associated strains of the pathogen, with little contribution from the food chain.

The study, published yesterday in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, found that the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL) E coli sequence type (ST) 131 was the predominant strain found in bloodstream isolates, as well as in samples collected from human feces and sewage, while isolates from meat, veterinary diagnostic samples, and farm runoff were dominated by other ESBL E coli sequence types. Few drug-resistant E coli strains were shared among the animal and human isolates.

The authors of the study say the findings suggest that while ESBL E coli strains are widespread in humans, animals, and the environment, there’s little crossover between these strains, and efforts to reduce invasive ESBL E coli infections should focus on limiting human transmission.

Research -Antibiotic-free poultry meat less likely to harbor multidrug-resistant Salmonella

CIDRAP Campylobacter kswfoodworld

An analysis by researchers in Pennsylvania found that meat from conventionally raised poultry harbored nearly twice as much multidrug-resistant Salmonella as meat from antibiotic-free poultry, according to a study reported today at IDWeek 2019.

The findings come from a study conducted by scientists with the Pennsylvania Department of Health, Penn State College of Medicine, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that examined non-typhoidal Salmonella cultures from nearly 3,500 samples of chicken and turkey bought from randomly selected stores in Pennsylvania from 2008 through 2017. Analysis of the Salmonella cultures found that 55% of those from conventionally raised poultry meat were resistant to three or more antibiotic classes, compared with 28% of the cultures from the antibiotic-free poultry meat.

Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness, affecting more than 1.2 million Americans each year. While most cases are self-limiting, some salmonellosis cases require antibiotics and hospitalization. Drug-resistant Salmonella is harder to treat and can cause more severe and sometimes deadly infections.

Research – Perception Problems for Multidrug-Resistant Organisms

Contagion Live

We’ve all seen the statistics—each year in the United States, 2 million people will get an antibiotic-resistant infection and at least 23,000 will die as a result of them. Moreover, multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) represent an increasing threat to global health as it’s estimated that their mortality rates will exceed those of cancer by 2050. It’s easy to see such data and focus on how to cut down the rates or how to increase antimicrobial stewardship without thinking about the perceptions or emotional impact of these infections.

How do health care workers experience MDROs? What about patients? These types of questions are rarely discussed in infection prevention or antimicrobial resistance efforts but, nonetheless, play a critical role. A new study from a research team in Germany sought to truly understand how these perceptions affect efforts such as hand hygiene, disinfection, and isolation. We all too often focus on the isolation and rapid identification of patients with MDROs but rarely discuss the social and psychological implications of such infections.

Investigators used a socio-constructivist focus and a mixed-method approach to conduct the study, which was broken into sections that included discussions, peer-assisted objective-structured clinical examination, and constructive efforts like card surveys and papers. Topics included infectious diseases and microbiology, basic hygiene procedures, communication techniques, and special protective hazardous material equipment. The research team had 51 health care workers from 13 professions across 5 hospitals participate in this training and data collection. Overall, they found that there are significant barriers both in educating clinicians and then informing patients and family members, and also in handling emotional responses in patients diagnosed and isolated with an MDRO infection.

USA – More pig ear dog treats recalled in multistate outbreak

Food Safety News

Dog Goods USA LLC of Tobyhanna, PA joins the list of companies involved in a federal and state investigation regarding contaminated pig ear dog treats that are likely responsible for a multistate, multidrug-resistant Salmonella outbreak. 

Dog Goods USA LLC has recalled its Chef Toby Pig Ears Treats because they have the potential to be contaminated with Salmonella, according to a notice posted by the Food and Drug Administration. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is working with the FDA and several state agencies on the outbreak investigation.

According to the recall notice, the affected product includes non-irradiated bulk and packaged pig ears branded Chef Toby Pig Ears, due to potential Salmonella contamination.

Research – Relationship of Sanitizers, Disinfectants, and Cleaning Agents with Antimicrobial Resistance

Journal of Food Protection

Sanitizers, disinfectants, and cleaning agents are vital to food hygiene assurance and are a major public health protection measure. Limiting microbial antibiotic resistance is also a global public health priority. Although many factors contribute to the rise in antimicrobial resistance in bacteria infecting humans, antibiotic use in both human clinical settings and for food-producing animals are primary contributors. Some concerns have been raised about the possibility of coselection between food hygiene chemicals and reduced antimicrobial susceptibility. This article reviews available evidence from individual studies purporting to demonstrate a possible risk of antimicrobial resistance development, following biocide usage. Furthermore, the conclusions of several key expert reports and meta-analysis publications were assessed for supportive evidence of a relationship between biocide usage in food production and resistance development. Although many studies report on the isolation of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains in food, evidence is lacking on the attribution of this resistance to biocide usage. Also, although a theoretical risk of causality exists, many of the studies performed to demonstrate this are in vitro studies using laboratory-grown or -trained bacterial isolates, challenged with sublethal (below the recommended food industry) disinfectant or sanitizing agent concentrations. The proper use of, and adherence to biocide manufacturer’s instruction for use, and the avoidance of biocide active agent dilution (e.g., through biofilm presence) must be ensured in food production environments. It is recommended that in situ studies should be performed to further assess causality, ensured a clear differentiation between interpretation of stable antimicrobial resistance and phenotypic adaptation. Furthermore, authorization of new biocidal active substances should take a scientific and risk-based approach regarding the potential for driving microbial resistance.

HIGHLIGHTS
  • Sanitizers and disinfectants (biocides) are essential for food safety assurance.

  • Concerns have been raised about theoretical risk of biocide-induced antimicrobial resistance.

  • In vitro studies provide weak causal evidence to attribute antimicrobial resistance to biocide usage.

  • GMPs, proper biocide usage, and avoidance of biofilms mitigate risk of antimicrobial resistance.

Research – Dodging antibiotic resistance by curbing bacterial evolution

Science Daily

Lowering mutation rates in harmful bacteria might be an as yet untried way to hinder the emergence of antimicrobial pathogens. One target for drug development might be a protein factor, DNA translocase Mfd, that enables bacteria to evolve rapidly by promoting mutations in many different bacterial species. This action speeds antibiotic resistance, including multi-drug resistance. Working on drugs to block Mfd and similar factors could be a revolutionary strategy to address the worldwide crisis of treatment-resistant infectious diseases

Research – Resistant bacteria: Can raw vegetables and salad pose a health risk?

Science Daily 

 

Salad is popular with people who want to maintain a balanced and healthy diet. Salad varieties are often offered for sale ready-cut and film-packaged. It is known that these types of fresh produce may be contaminated with bacteria that are relevant from the point of view of hygiene. A working group led by Professor Dr. Kornelia Smalla from the Julius Kühn Institute (JKI) has now shown that these bacteria may also include bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics.

“We have to get to the bottom of these findings,” said Professor Dr Georg Backhaus, President of the Julius Kühn Institute. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are known to occur in manure, sewage sludge, soil and bodies of water. “This worrying detection of these kinds of bacteria on plants is in line with similar findings for other foods,” adds Professor Dr Dr Andreas Hensel, President of the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR). “We are now assessing as a matter of urgency what this finding means with regard to the health risk for consumers.”