Category Archives: Bore Hole Water

Ireland – E. coli found in 1 in 20 private water supplies, says EPA.


Key Findings for 2021

➤Compliance with drinking water standards in private supplies hasn’t improved in recent years. One in 20 supplies failed to meet the standard, compared to 1 in 200 for public water supplies.

➤Local authorities are not monitoring over a quarter of small private supplies for E. coli – and there may be many more supplies which need to be registered with the local authority.

➤Despite these shortcomings, over 60% of government funding available for infrastructural improvements went unused by water suppliers.

➤The timely completion of the Government review of rural water services will provide direction and support to water suppliers to address risks to public health.

Ireland – EPA – Drinking Water Quality in Private Group Schemes and Small Private Supplies in 2020 – E.coli


Click to access DWQinPrivateGroupWaterSupplies-2022-02-21.pdf

Key Findings for 2020

➤The quality of drinking water in private supplies was not as good as it should be: one in 20 private water supplies were contaminated with E. coli.

➤93% of Private Group Schemes complied with the Trihalomethanes standard. However, 13 supplies are cited on EU infringement proceedings against Ireland for failing to take the measures necessary to ensure compliance.

➤Over a quarter of Small Private Supplies were not monitored by Local Authorities.

Research – Legionella Occurrence beyond Cooling Towers and Premise Plumbing



Legionella is an environmental pathogen that is responsible for respiratory disease and is a common causative agent of water-related outbreaks. Due to their ability to survive in a broad range of environments, transmission of legionellosis is possible from a variety of sources. Unfortunately, a disproportionate amount of research that is devoted to studying the occurrence of Legionella in environmental reservoirs is aimed toward cooling towers and premise plumbing. As confirmed transmission of Legionella has been linked to many other sources, an over-emphasis on the most common sources may be detrimental to increasing understanding of the spread of legionellosis. This review aims to address this issue by cataloguing studies which have examined the occurrence of Legionella in less commonly investigated environments. By summarizing and discussing reports of Legionella in fresh water, ground water, saltwater, and distribution system drinking water, future environmental and public health researchers will have a resource to aid in investigating these pathogens in relevant sources. View Full-Text

USA – FSMA Proposed Rule on Agricultural Water


The FDA is proposing a revision to Subpart E of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) Produce Safety Rule that would change the pre-harvest agricultural water requirements for covered produce (other than sprouts). The requirements in this proposed rule, if finalized, would replace the pre-harvest microbial quality criteria and testing requirements in the Produce Safety Rule with requirements for systems-based pre-harvest agricultural water assessments. These assessments would be used to identify conditions that are reasonably likely to introduce known or reasonably foreseeable hazards into or onto produce or food contact surfaces, and to determine whether corrective or mitigation measures are needed to minimize the risks associated with pre-harvest agricultural water.

These proposed requirements are intended to address stakeholder concerns about the complexity and practical implementation of certain pre-harvest agricultural water requirements in the Produce Safety Rule while continuing to protect public health. The requirements also are designed to be adaptable to future advancements in agricultural water quality science.

We are not proposing to change the requirements for harvest and post-harvest uses of agricultural water, or the agricultural water requirements for sprouts.  Sprouts are subject to specific pre-harvest agricultural water requirements, and the compliance dates for those sprouts requirements have passed.


1. Agricultural Water Assessment

The proposed rule, if finalized, would replace the pre-harvest microbial quality criteria and testing requirements in the Produce Safety Rule for covered produce (other than sprouts) with requirements for systems-based pre-harvest agricultural water assessments to be used for hazard identification and risk management decision-making (see the webpage for the final Produce Safety Rule for a description of the requirements as currently written).  Under the proposed requirements, covered farms would be required to conduct pre-harvest agricultural water assessments once annually, and whenever a change occurs that increases the likelihood that a known or reasonably foreseeable hazard will be introduced into or onto produce or food contact surfaces. As part of their pre-harvest agricultural water assessments, these farms would be required to evaluate certain factors (listed in the link above) that could impact produce safety.

India – Operation Vibrio launched in Kozhikode to tackle waterborne diseases

The Hindu

Operation Vibrio, an action plan to tackle the recurring incidents of food poisoning and waterborne diseases, has been launched in Kozhikode. The Health Department has also issued an alert against cholera in the district.

District Medical Officer Ummer Farooque said on Tuesday that the effort was to detect diseases such as cholera, shigella, amoebiasis, typhoid and jaundice that spread through contaminated food and water. As many as 17 cases of food poisoning had been reported in the district between February and November this year. As many as 257 people were infected and two died. Family events and wedding receptions and the food supplied in shops and hostels were reported to be the source of the infection. Some others took ill through having ice cream and fruit juices. The presence of bacteria such as vibrio cholerae, coliform, and e-coli had been found in water sources in some parts of the district as well.

Research – Is Fresh Produce in Tigray, Ethiopia a Potential Transmission Vehicle for Cryptosporidium and Giardia?


CDC Giardia2

In rural Ethiopia, where people often share their homes with their livestock, infections of humans and animals with Cryptosporidium and Giardia are relatively common. One possible transmission route is consumption of contaminated fresh produce; this study investigated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in fresh produce in four districts of rural Tigray in Ethiopia. Fresh produce samples (n = 55) were analysed using standard laboratory procedures. Overall, 15% (8/55) of samples were found to be contaminated. Although contamination levels were mostly low, a few samples had high numbers of Giardia cysts (up to around 70 cysts per 30 g sample). Molecular analyses were largely unsuccessful, but Giardia Assemblage A was identified in one sample. Contamination with these parasites was identified in two of the four districts, but, although a similar pattern has already been described for water contamination, this may be at least partially explained by sampling bias. Nevertheless, we speculate that access to clean water sources may be an important factor for reducing the occurrence of these pathogens. Given the public health and veterinary burden associated with both parasites, the factors which are of importance for their circulation in the communities and environments deserve further investigation. View Full-Text

India – Cholera outbreak: 16 of 24 water samples found non-potable in Panchkula

The Tribune

Of the 24 water samples collected from Abheypur and Budhanpur villages, 16 were found to have coliform bacteria, meaning “non-potable”.

The samples were analysed at a government laboratory in Ramgarh. Four other samples collected from Sector 16 (one sample), Rajiv Colony (two) and Indira Colony (one) were found to be fit for drinking. So far, 55 samples have been collected and sent to the Ramgarh laboratory for analysis.

Of the 55 water samples, the report of 28 (16 found non-potable and 12 potable) have been received, while that of 27 is still awaited. Of the 35 stool samples, 23 have been found positive for vibrio cholera. Meanwhile, the number of patients infected with cholera reached 440 today. As many as 72 (30 adults and 42 children) are still under treatment at the Civil Hospital in Sector 6.

Research – Hepatitis A outbreak with the concurrence of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Poona infection in children of urban Vellore, south India – 2019

IJID Online

Background: Outbreaks of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection continue to be reported from India, that have transitioned from hyper-to-intermediate endemicity. Hepatitis A and Salmonella sp. share similar routes of transmission and may co-infect individuals at risk. We report here an outbreak of hepatitis A with concomitant Salmonellosis from an urban settlement of Vellore in south India between July and August 2019.

Our findings highlight that Hepatitis A infection can present as sporadic outbreaks in communities with sub-standard water and sewage systems, along with the co-infection of other enteric infections such as invasive Salmonellosis. Thus, population-based surveillance for Hepatitis A is required in India, to identify populations and geographical regions at risk, and thereby potentially plan implementation strategies for Hepatitis A vaccination.

India – Adilabad medicos suffer from food poisoning, hospitalised

Telangana Today

RIMS Director Dr Banoth Balaram said 22 of the 70 students who had lunch developed vomiting, headache and nausea. They were admitted to the institution and their condition was stable.

They were admitted to the institution and their condition was stable. Water contamination could be the cause of the incident, he said, adding that 200 students attended classes on the first day of the reopening of the college.

District Collector Sikta Patnaik visited the institute and inquired about the incident. She instructed the RIMS authorities to take steps to avoid the recurrence of such issues in the future. The water used to cook the food was from a bore-well since there was a leak in the Mission Bhagiratha pipeline, sources said.

Research – Living with Legionella and Other Waterborne Pathogens


Legionella spp. and other opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs), including Pseudomonas aeruginosaMycobacterium aviumStenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter baumannii, are normal inhabitants of natural waters, drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Thus, humans are regularly exposed to these pathogens. Unfortunately, Legionella spp. and the other OPPPs share a number of features that allow them to grow and persist in premise plumbing. They form biofilms and are also relatively disinfectant-resistant, able to grow at low organic matter concentrations, and able to grow under stagnant conditions. Infections have been traced to exposure to premise plumbing or aerosols generated in showers. A number of measures can lead to reduction in OPPP numbers in premise plumbing, including elevation of water heater temperatures.