Category Archives: Citrinin

Research – Mycotoxins Affecting Animals, Foods, Humans, and Plants: Types, Occurrence, Toxicities, Action Mechanisms, Prevention, and Detoxification Strategies—A Revisit


CDC Fusarium1

Mycotoxins are produced by fungi and are known to be toxic to humans and animals. Common mycotoxins include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, patulin, sterigmatocystin, citrinin, ergot alkaloids, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, trichothecenes, Alternaria toxins, tremorgenic mycotoxins, fusarins, 3-nitropropionic acid, cyclochlorotine, sporidesmin, etc. These mycotoxins can pose several health risks to both animals and humans, including death. As several mycotoxins simultaneously occur in nature, especially in foods and feeds, the detoxification and/or total removal of mycotoxins remains challenging. Moreover, given that the volume of scientific literature regarding mycotoxins is steadily on the rise, there is need for continuous synthesis of the body of knowledge. To supplement existing information, knowledge of mycotoxins affecting animals, foods, humans, and plants, with more focus on types, toxicity, and prevention measures, including strategies employed in detoxification and removal, were revisited in this work. Our synthesis revealed that mycotoxin decontamination, control, and detoxification strategies cut across pre-and post-harvest preventive measures. In particular, pre-harvest measures can include good agricultural practices, fertilization/irrigation, crop rotation, using resistant varieties of crops, avoiding insect damage, early harvesting, maintaining adequate humidity, and removing debris from the preceding harvests. On the other hand, post-harvest measures can include processing, chemical, biological, and physical measures. Additionally, chemical-based methods and other emerging strategies for mycotoxin detoxification can involve the usage of chitosan, ozone, nanoparticles, and plant extracts. View Full-Text

Research – Citrinin in Foods and Supplements: A Review of Occurrence and Analytical Methodologies


Citrinin (CIT) deserves attention due to its known toxic effects in mammalian species and its widespread occurrence in food commodities, often along with ochratoxin A, another nephrotoxic mycotoxin. Human exposure, a key element in assessing risk related to food contaminants, depends upon mycotoxin contamination levels in food and on food consumption. Commercial supplements, commonly designated as red rice, usually used in daily diets in Asiatic countries due to their medicinal properties, may pose a health problem as a result of high CIT levels. In addition to the worldwide occurrence of CIT in foods and supplements, a wide range of several analytical and detection techniques with high sensitivity, used for evaluation of CIT, are reviewed and discussed in this manuscript. This review addresses the scientific literature regarding the presence of CIT in foods of either vegetable or animal origin, as well as in supplements. On what concerns analytical methodologies, sample extraction methods, such as shaking extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE), clean-up methods, such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE) and Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuECHERS), and detection and quantification methods, such as thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), biosensors, and ELISA, are also reviewed.