Research – Citrinin in Foods and Supplements: A Review of Occurrence and Analytical Methodologies

MDPI

Citrinin (CIT) deserves attention due to its known toxic effects in mammalian species and its widespread occurrence in food commodities, often along with ochratoxin A, another nephrotoxic mycotoxin. Human exposure, a key element in assessing risk related to food contaminants, depends upon mycotoxin contamination levels in food and on food consumption. Commercial supplements, commonly designated as red rice, usually used in daily diets in Asiatic countries due to their medicinal properties, may pose a health problem as a result of high CIT levels. In addition to the worldwide occurrence of CIT in foods and supplements, a wide range of several analytical and detection techniques with high sensitivity, used for evaluation of CIT, are reviewed and discussed in this manuscript. This review addresses the scientific literature regarding the presence of CIT in foods of either vegetable or animal origin, as well as in supplements. On what concerns analytical methodologies, sample extraction methods, such as shaking extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE), clean-up methods, such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE) and Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuECHERS), and detection and quantification methods, such as thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), biosensors, and ELISA, are also reviewed.

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