Category Archives: Penicillium citrinium

Research – How do Time, Tannin and Moisture Content Influence on Toxicogenic Fungal Populations during the Storage of Sorghum Grains?

Journal of Food Protection

Cereal grains are usually ensiled to improve their nutritional value and are one of the main sources of feed for dairy cattle. However, during storage, grains can be contaminated with toxicogenic fungi. Sorghum is one of the most economically important cereals in the world. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of storage duration and tannin and moisture contents on toxicogenic fungal populations in sorghum grain storage. Samples were prepared with variety high in tannins (genotypes Morgan 108 and ACA 558, >5g/kg DM) and with variety low tannin content (genotypes Flash 10 and ACA 546, <1g/kg DM) were collected and manually compacted in experimental laboratory silos where they received different moisture content treatments, namely low (15-25%), medium (26-32%) and high (33-42%). Freshly harvest grains were analyzed at time 0 and storage grains were analyzed at different times (30, 90 and 180 days). Fungal isolation and identification were performed following conventional mycological methods. Penicillium citrinum (34%), Aspergillus flavus (60%) and Fusarium nygamai (68%) were the most abundant species. Rapid detection of aflatoxins and fumonisins in each sample was performed by ELISA according to the AOAC method, and the quantification of aflatoxin B 1 was performed by HPLC. Aflatoxins were detected in four samples with levels of 6.7-28.8 µg/kg and aflatoxin B 1 with a level of 2-14 µg/kg in pre- and post-storage grains . Fumonisins were only detected in two freshly harvested samples with levels of 500-900 µg/kg . In general, the storage time favored the increase of Penicillium population, instead the Aspergillus and Fusarium are reduced. Conversely the abundance of the three population was not affected by the moisture content. The results of this study show that fungal population must be analyzed at different times.

Research – Citrinin in Foods and Supplements: A Review of Occurrence and Analytical Methodologies


Citrinin (CIT) deserves attention due to its known toxic effects in mammalian species and its widespread occurrence in food commodities, often along with ochratoxin A, another nephrotoxic mycotoxin. Human exposure, a key element in assessing risk related to food contaminants, depends upon mycotoxin contamination levels in food and on food consumption. Commercial supplements, commonly designated as red rice, usually used in daily diets in Asiatic countries due to their medicinal properties, may pose a health problem as a result of high CIT levels. In addition to the worldwide occurrence of CIT in foods and supplements, a wide range of several analytical and detection techniques with high sensitivity, used for evaluation of CIT, are reviewed and discussed in this manuscript. This review addresses the scientific literature regarding the presence of CIT in foods of either vegetable or animal origin, as well as in supplements. On what concerns analytical methodologies, sample extraction methods, such as shaking extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE), clean-up methods, such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE) and Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuECHERS), and detection and quantification methods, such as thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), biosensors, and ELISA, are also reviewed.

Research – High mycotoxin levels pose risk to dairy farmers this winter

Dairy Global

A high risk of mycotoxin contamination in this year’s forage is posing a challenge for many producers and could be responsible for struggling milk yields and excessive feed waste and underutilisation, experts warn.

According to a press release, Bob Kendal, regional sales manager at Alltech U.K. says, while many producers have lots of forage available this year due to a bumper harvest, we have had a record number of mycotoxin related enquiries, and a number of silage test results have shown high levels of penicillium.

Research – Prevalence and identification of Aspergillus and Penicillium species isolated from peanut kernels in central Myanmar

Wiley Online


The objective of the present study was to conduct a survey to evaluate the postharvest handling of peanuts at farm level and to screen and identify the strains of Aspergillus and Penicillium species from peanut kernels in central Myanmar. A total of 640 samples from the stores of farmers, collectors, and wholesalers were collected and seeded for growth, isolation, and characterization of fungi. Out of 85 isolates, Aspergillus flavus (38), A. niger (20), A. terreus (15), and Penicillium citrinum (12) were identified and confirmed by molecular techniques including DNA sequencing using internal transcribed spacer (ITS5/4) and beta‐tubulin (Bt2a/2b) primer sets. The study indicates different factors associated with fungal contamination at farm level peanut storage and warrants an immediate attention of food safety regulatory authorities to design and implement strategies for postharvest handling and storage practice in developing countries to minimize fungal contamination.

Practical applications

In developing countries like Myanmar, there are lack of food safety practices and policies regarding the food storage, handling, and farmer education. The current study indicates the different storage methods for peanut kernels at farm level and their influence on prevalence of fungi. The study will give a deep insight to the policy makers to design food safety practices at farm level and educate the farmers to adopt the better practices to assure the consumer health and satisfaction in developing countries.

UK – Class 2 Medicines Recall: Paracetamol 500mg Tablets, 1 x 1000 PL 04077/0001 (MDR 13-04/19) – Fungal Contamination

M & A Pharmachem is recalling the above batches because a small number of pots from each batch have been found to contain discoloured tablets due to fungal contamination.

The fungi have been identified as Penicillium citrinium and Penicillium brevicompactum. It is unlikely that any affected tablets will have got to patient level as the discolouration is noticeable on opening affected packs.