Category Archives: eae

Research – Occurrence and Characteristics of Escherichia albertii in Wild Birds and Poultry Flocks in Switzerland


Escherichia albertii, a zoonotic pathogen, has sporadically been associated with infectious diarrhea in humans. Poultry and wild birds are considered potential reservoirs. We assessed the occurrence of E. albertii in 280 fecal samples from wild birds (n = 130) and pooled fecal samples collected at slaughterhouse level from poultry flocks (n = 150) in Switzerland. Using an E. albertii-specific PCR targeting the Eacdt gene, 23.8% (31/130) of the samples from wild birds, but not from the pooled poultry fecal samples, tested positive for Eacdt. The positive samples originated from 11 bird species belonging to eight families. Strain isolation was attempted on the PCR-positive samples by subculturing the broth cultures onto xylose–MacConkey plates. Isolation was possible on 12 of the 31 Eacdt-PCR-positive samples. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the strains belonged to nine distinct sequence types, with ST13420 and ST5967 being represented by two and three isolates, respectively. All strains harbored the eae gene, while two strains were also positive for stx2f. Our study thus shows that E. albertii is present in the Swiss wild bird population, which can potentially act as a source of this pathogen to humans, other animals, and the environment. View Full-Text

Research – Prevalence and Characterization of Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Animal Feed in Croatia


A survey on prevalence and number of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia (E.) coli (STEC) in animal feed was carried out over a period of nine years in the Republic of Croatia. A total of 1688 feed samples were collected from feed factories and poultry farms. Analysis included two standard procedures: sample enrichment and (a) immunomagnetic separation and plating on two selective media; or (b) plating on two selective media. Confirmation of STEC included morphological examination, biochemical tests, serotyping, and polymerase chain reaction. Morphological and biochemical characterization revealed 629 E. coli strains. Further serological screening method revealed 78 STEC and EPEC serotypes, while only 27 strains were confirmed as STEC with PCR. All positive samples (1.6%) originated from poultry farms and contained combination of virulence genes: eaeA, stx1, and/or stx2. Since the presence of stx (especially stx2) and eae are identified as risk factors for development of severe diseases in humans, results of this survey indicate that avian sources of STEC infections might be one of those “undefined sources” of human illnesses. Further research is necessary for evaluation of risks posed by contaminated feed, poultry, and environment.

RASFF Alerts – STEC E.coli – Minced Meat – Chilled Meat


STEC (stx+;eae+) in minced meat from Belgium in Germany, Netherlands and UK



RASFF Alert – STEC E.coli – Bovine Carcass


STEC (stx+;eae+) in bovine carcass from Belgium in France

RASFF Alert – STEC E.coli – Cow Carcass


STEC (stx+;eae+) in cow carcass from Belgium in France and the Netherlands

Czech Republic – TARTAR DI MANZO – EPEC E.coli


Illustration photo no. 1

Place of inspection:
Ostrava ( Masarykovo namesti 2572/7, 702 00 Ostrava )
Company ID: 06433847
Food group: Meals Cold dishes

Category: Dangerous food
Unsatisfactory parameter:

Escherichia coli enteropathogenic (EPEC) – intimin (eaeA)

The food was found to have the pathogenic enteropathogenic bacterium  Escherichia coli (EPEC), which causes watery diarrhea, vomiting and fever.

Expiration date: 8/31/2021
Quantity of product in package: 100 g
Producer: Anebia food sro, Masarykovo namesti 2572/7, Ostrava
Sampling date: 31. 8. 2021
Reference number: 21-000545-CAFIA-CZ
The sample was found by an official inspection of the State Agricultural and Food Inspection Authority.

Research – Occurrence of the seven most common serotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef cuts produced in meat-processing plants in the state of São Paulo, Brazil


Healthy cattle are considered the main reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, so in some places in the world, products derived from beef are the most common source for disease outbreaks caused by these bacteria. Therefore, in order to guarantee that the beef produced by our slaughterhouses is safe, there is a need for continuous monitoring of these bacteria. In this study, 215 beef cuts were evaluated, including chilled vacuum-packed striploins (151 samples), rib eyes (30 samples), and knuckles (34 samples), from March to June, 2018. These meat samples were collected from the slaughter of unconfined cattle, being arbitrarily collected from eight meat-processing companies in São Paulo state, Brazil. Each sample was examined for the presence of STEC toxin type ( stx 1 and/or stx 2 genes) and also the E. coli attaching-and-effacing ( eae ) gene, which were determined by a multiplex PCR assay. Here we show that the major seven STEC strains (O serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) are not detected in any of the analyzed beef cut samples; however, three of them presented the virulence eae gene. Therefore, the absence of STEC strains in the beef samples may be an indication of the low prevalence of this pathogen in the cattle herd on the farm, associated with good hygiene and handling practices adopted by the meat industry.

Research – Detection of Escherichia albertii in retail oysters

Journal of Food Protection

Escherichia albertii  is an emerging foodborne pathogen. Owing to its distribution in river water,  it is important to determine the presence of  E. albertii  in aquaculture-related foods. In this study, we investigated the distribution of  E. albertii  in retail oyster samples.  A total of  427 raw oyster samples (385 Pacific oysters, and 42 Japanese rock oysters) were enriched in  modified Escherichia coli  broth (mEC) or mEC supplemented with novobiocin (NmEC) at 42 °C. The cultures were used for  E. albertii -specific nested PCR assay, as well as for  E. albertii  isolation using  deoxycholate hydrogen sulfide lactose agar  (DHL), DHL supplemented with rhamnose and xylose (RX-DHL), and MacConkey agar supplemented with rhamnose and xylose (RX-MAC). The population of  E. albertii  in nested PCR-positive samples was  determined using the  most probable number  (MPN) method.  E. albertii  isolates were subjected to biochemical and genetic characterization.  E. albertii   was detected in 5 of 315 (1.6%) Pacific oyster samples  (one piece each), 2 of 70 (2.9 %)  Pacific oyster samples  (25 g each), and 2 of 42 (4.8 %) Japanese rock oyster samples  procured from four geographically distant regions. A total of 64  E. albertii  strains were isolated from eight of the nine nested PCR assay-positive oyster samples, and  the MPN value was under the detection limit (< 3 MPN/10 g).  A specific season or month for detecting  E. albertii  was not observed in this study, suggesting that the pathogen is present in seawater.   All the  E. albertii  isolates, except one, were positive for the virulence factor  eae,  indicating that these isolates have  the potential to infect humans.

Germany – Reblochon fermier Reblochon Excellence farm production – STEC E.coli


Warning type: Food
Date of first publication: 08/20/2021
Product name:

Reblochon fermier Reblochon Excellence farm production

Manufacturer (distributor): Coopérative de Thônes France
Reason for warning:

Suspected contamination with undesirable bacteria (Escherichia coli Stec (gen stx and eae).

Packaging Unit: Counter goods
Durability: 08/31/2021
Lot identification:


Additional Information: Reference is made to the company’s customer information sheet attached.
Contact to the responsible authorities:

Press releases and information
title Attachment or web link
Customer information

Research – High Occurrence of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Raw Meat-Based Diets for Companion Animals—A Public Health Issue


Feeding pets raw meat-based diets (RMBDs) is becoming increasingly popular but comes with a risk of pathogenic bacteria, including Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In humans, STEC may cause gastrointestinal illnesses, including diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC), and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The aim of this study was to evaluate commercially available RMBDs with regard to the occurrence of STEC. Of 59 RMBD samples, 59% tested positive by real-time PCR for the presence of Shiga toxin genes stx1 and/or stx2. STECs were recovered from 41% of the 59 samples, and strains were subjected to serotyping and virulence gene profiling, using whole genome sequencing (WGS)-based methods. Of 28 strains, 29% carried stx2a or stx2d, which are linked to STEC with high pathogenic potential. Twenty different serotypes were identified, including STEC O26:H11, O91:H10, O91:H14, O145:H28, O146:H21, and O146:H28, which are within the most common non-O157 serogroups associated with human STEC-related illnesses worldwide. Considering the low infectious dose and potential severity of disease manifestations, the high occurrence of STEC in RMBDs poses an important health risk for persons handling raw pet food and persons with close contact to pets fed on RMBDs, and is of concern in the field of public health. View Full-Text