Pinnatoxins in fresh mussels from the Netherlands in Belgium
Pinnatoxins (PnTXs) are toxins produced by marine microalgae called Vulcanodinium rugosum that can accumulate in shellfish. These marine biotoxins were first identified in France in 2011 in mussels from the Ingril lagoon in the Hérault département. Since then, analyses carried out in mussels from this lagoon have shown high concentrations of PnTXs for several months each year.
Pinnatoxins have also been detected, to a lesser extent, in other regions of France, notably in mussels from other Mediterranean lagoons (Vic, le Prévost, Thau, Leucate) and on the Atlantic and Corsican coasts. Outside France, data on shellfish contamination by PnTXs have also been reported in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and other countries in Northern and Southern Europe.