Category Archives: Bacteria

Research – Microbial Consortium Associated with Crustacean Shells Composting


Soil microbes play an essential role in the biodegradation of crustacean shells, which is the process of sustainable bioconversion to chitin derivatives ultimately resulting in the promotion of plant growth properties. While a number of microorganisms with chitinolytic properties have been characterized, little is known about the microbial taxa that participate in this process either by active chitin degradation or by facilitation of this activity through nutritional cooperation and composting with the chitinolytic microorganisms. In this study, we evaluated the transformation of the soil microbiome triggered by close approximation to the green crab shell surface. Our data indicate that the microbial community associated with green crab shell matter undergoes significant specialized changes, which was reflected in a decreased fungal and bacterial Shannon diversity and evenness and in a dramatic alteration in the community composition. The relative abundance of several bacterial and fungal genera including bacteria FlavobacteriumClostridiumPseudomonas, and Sanguibacter and fungi MortierellaMycochlamys, and Talaromyces were increased with approximation to the shell surface. Association with the shell triggered significant changes in microbial cooperation that incorporate microorganisms that were previously reported to be involved in chitin degradation as well as ones with no reported chitinolytic activity. Our study indicates that the biodegradation of crab shells in soil incorporates a consortium of microorganisms that might provide a more efficient way for bioconversion. View Full-Text

Netherlands – Safety Warning Siu Loong Bun Pork & Cheese from Kung Fu


Amazing Oriental warns against Kung Fu’s Siu Loong Bun Pork & Cheese. An internal investigation has shown that the product contains microbacteria. Eating this product can pose a health hazard. Do not eat the product.

Siu Loong Bun Pork & Cheese

Product code: 69259
Brand: Kung Fu
Best before: 02/01/2023
Packing unit: 300g

An internal investigation has shown that the said product contains microbacteria. Consuming this product may pose a health hazard.

We would like to request that you return the mentioned product to one of the Amazing Oriental branches. You will of course receive the purchase amount back.

Research – Zoonotic Pathogens in Wildlife Traded in Markets for Human Consumption, Laos



We tested animals from wildlife trade sites in Laos for the presence of zoonotic pathogens. Leptospira spp. were the most frequently detected infectious agents, found in 20.1% of animals. Rickettsia typhi and R. felis were also detected. These findings suggest a substantial risk for exposure through handling and consumption of wild animal meat.

Consumption of wildlife meat drives emerging infectious diseases , often amplified by human encroachment into natural areas and changes in land use. Wildlife trade and consumption have been responsible for outbreaks of diseases such as HIV-1 , Ebola , and monkeypox and possibly for the coronavirus disease pandemic . Wildlife markets bring diverse species into contact, usually in dense and unsanitary conditions, enabling mixing, amplification, and transmission of pathogens among species, including humans . Small mammals host diverse pathogenic bacteria and viruses , but little investigation of endemic bacteria transmission has occurred. Determining pathogens present in traded wildlife is vital to guide appropriate measures to combat zoonotic diseases and document societal and environmental costs of wildlife trade.

Slovakia – Safe defrosting of food – promotional leaflet in Slovakian


The National Contact Point EFSA (Department of Food Safety and Nutrition MPRV SR ) in cooperation with the European Food Safety Authority has prepared a leaflet on safe defrosting of food in the Slovak language.

The leaflet presents basic information on defrosting food, usable in every household. By reducing the mistakes that consumers make when handling frozen food incorrectly, the formation of harmful bacteria is eliminated. Proper thawing procedures reduce the risk of foodborne illness and reduce food waste.

Italy – Giuncatina Santa Caterina Primosale Santa Caterina – Bacterial Contamination


Brand : Giuncatina Primosale

Name : Giuncatina Santa Caterina Primosale Santa Caterina

Reason for reporting : Recall due to microbiological risk

Publication date : 7 March 2022

Click to access C_17_PubblicazioneRichiami_1668_azione_itemAzione0_files_itemFiles0_fileAzione.pdf

USA – Kick off your Super Bowl gathering with critical food safety precautions

Food Safety News

Sport football.svg

Here are some food safety tips for Super Bowl Sunday from the USDA:

#1 Remember Your Four Steps to Food Safety

  • Clean: Wash hands for 20 seconds before and after handling food, especially raw meat and poultry. Clean hands, surfaces and utensils with soap and warm water before cooking, during preparation and serving. After cleaning surfaces that raw meat and poultry have touched, apply a commercial or homemade sanitizing solution (1 tablespoon of liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of water). Use hand sanitizer that contains at least 60 percent alcohol.
  • Separate: Use separate cutting boards, plates and utensils to avoid cross-contamination between raw meat or poultry and foods that are ready-to-eat, such as raw vegetables and fruits.
  • Cook: Confirm foods are cooked to a safe internal temperature by using a food thermometer.
  • Chill: Chill foods promptly if not consuming immediately after cooking. Don’t leave food at room temperature for longer than two hours. Set out portions of foods and refill serving dishes instead of setting out all of the food at the beginning of the game.

#2 Cook Your Food to a Safe Internal Temperature

  • Using a food thermometer, ensure you reach a safe internal temperature when cooking: meat (whole beef, pork and lamb) 145 degrees F with a 3-minute resting time after removing from heat; ground meats 160 degrees F; poultry (ground and whole) 165 degrees F; eggs 160 degrees F; fish and shellfish 145 degrees F; and leftovers and casseroles 165 degrees F.
  • If chicken wings are on the menu, use a food thermometer on several wings to gauge the doneness of the entire batch. If one is under 165 F, continue cooking all wings until they reach that safe internal temperature.

#3 Avoid the Danger Zone

  • Bacteria multiply rapidly between 40 degrees F and 140 degrees F. This temperature range is called the Danger Zone.
  • Perishable foods, such as chicken wings, deli wraps and meatball appetizers, should be discarded if left out for longer than two hours. To prevent food waste, refrigerate or freeze perishable items within two hours.
    • Keep cold foods at a temperature of 40 degrees F or below by keeping food nestled in ice bowls or refrigerated until ready to serve.
    • Keep hot foods at a temperature of 140 degrees F or above by placing food in a preheated oven, warming trays, chafing dishes or slow cookers.
  • Divide leftovers into small portions and refrigerate or freeze them in shallow containers, which helps leftovers cool quicker than storing them in large containers.

#4 Keep Takeout Food Safe

  • If you order food and it’s delivered or picked up in advance of the big game, divide the food into smaller portions or pieces, place in shallow containers and refrigerate until ready to reheat and serve. You can also keep the food warm (above 140 degrees F) in a preheated oven, warming tray, chafing dish or slow cooker.
  • When reheating food containing meat or poultry, make sure the internal temperature reaches 165 degrees F as measured by a food thermometer.
  • If heating food in the microwave, ensure that contents are evenly dispersed. Because microwaved food can have cold spots, be sure to stir food evenly until the food has reached a safe internal temperature throughout.

A special word on salsa and guacamole:

“The reason that salsa and guacamole are so susceptible to contamination is that they are made with multiple raw, uncooked vegetables and are often stored at room temperature,” according to the Food and Drug Administration.

In addition to being left out for long periods of time, salsa and guacamole often contain diced raw produce including hot peppers, tomatoes and cilantro, increasing their chance of carrying harmful bacteria.

Anyone preparing fresh salsa and guacamole at home should be aware that these foods contain raw ingredients and that they should be carefully prepared and refrigerated to help prevent illness.

To prevent bacteria growth, these side dishes should be refrigerated within two hours. Those serving these foods should be aware of the length of time they have been out at room temperature.

France – Terrine de saumon à l’aneth – Listeria monocytogenes

Gov france

Identification information of the recalled product

  • Product category Food
  • Product subcategory Prepared meals and snacks
  • Product brand name Carrefour Market
  • Model names or references Salmon terrine with dill Carrefour Le Marché, 150G tray
  • Identification of products
    GTIN Lot Date
    3523680440920 2201301 Use-by date 21/01/2022
  • Packaging150G tray
  • Marketing start/end date From 05/01/2022 to 17/01/2022
  • Storage temperature Product to be stored in the refrigerator
  • Health mark FR 62,894,102 CE
  • Geographic area of ​​sale Whole France
  • Distributors Carrefour

Practical information regarding the recall

  • Reason for recall suspicion of bacteriological contamination
  • Risks incurred by the consumer Listeria monocytogenes (causative agent of listeriosis)

Research – Main Groups of Microorganisms of Relevance for Food Safety and Stability


Microbiology is important to food safety, production, processing, preservation, and storage. Microbes such as bacteria, molds, and yeasts are employed for the foods production and food ingredients such as production of wine, beer, bakery, and dairy products. On the other hand, the growth and contamination of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms is considered as one of the main causes to loss of foodstuff nowadays. Although technology, hygienic strategies, and traceability are important factors to prevent and delay microbial growth and contamination, food remains susceptible to spoilage and activity of pathogen microorganisms. Food loss by either spoilage or contaminated food affects food industry and consumers leading to economic losses and increased hospitalization costs. This chapter focuses on general aspects, characteristics, and importance of main microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, molds, virus, and parasites) involved in food spoilage or contamination: known and recently discovered species; defects and alterations in foodstuff; most common food associated with each foodborne disease; resistance to thermal processing; occurrence in different countries; outbreaks; and associated symptoms.

Research – Effect of Direct Viral–Bacterial Interactions on the Removal of Norovirus From Lettuce

Frontiers in Microbiology

Norovirus Food Safety kswfoodworld

Norovirus (NoV) is the main non-bacterial pathogen causing outbreaks of gastroenteritis and is considered to be the leading cause of foodborne illness. This study aims to determine whether lettuce-encapsulated bacteria can express histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)–like substances to bind to NoV and, if so, to explore its role in protecting NoV from disinfection practices. Fifteen bacterial strains (HBGA-SEBs) were isolated from the lettuce microbiome and studied as they were proved to have the ability to express HBGA-like substances through indirect ELISA detection. By using attachment assay, HBGA-SEBs showed great abilities in carrying NoVs regarding the evaluation of binding capacity, especially for the top four strains from genera WautersiellaSphingobacterium, and Brachybacterium, which could absorb more than 60% of free-flowing NoVs. Meanwhile, the direct viral–bacterial binding between HBGA-like substance-expressing bacteria (HBGA-SEB) and NoVs was observed by TEM. Subsequently, results of simulated environmental experiments showed that the binding of NoVs with HBGA-SEBs did have detrimental effects on NoV reduction, which were evident in short-time high-temperature treatment (90°C) and UV exposure. Finally, by considering the relative abundance of homologous microorganisms of HBGA-SEBs in the lettuce microbiome (ca. 36.49%) and the reduction of NoVs in the simulated environments, we suggested putting extra attention on the daily disinfection of foodborne-pathogen carriers to overcome the detrimental effects of direct viral–bacterial interactions on the reduction of NoVs.

RASFF Alerts – Animal Feed – Microbial Contamination


Pet food with high number of bacteria, no labeling and defective closure from Austria in Germany and Romania