The harmful microorganisms of concern include both bacteria (e.g. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) and Vibrio cholerae (VC)) and viruses (e.g. norovirus). VP occurs naturally in seawater (estuaries and coastal areas). Hence, some seafood is inevitably contaminated with VP. On the other hand, VC can live in both saltwater and freshwater such as rivers. In Hong Kong, norovirus is a prevalent foodborne virus that is commonly found in polluted seawater and shellfish living in polluted areas is easily contaminated.
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