Aflatoxins (AFs) represent the most important mycotoxin group, whose presence in food and feed poses significant global health and economic issues. The occurrence of AFs in maize is a burning problem worldwide, mainly attributed to droughts. In recent years, Serbia and Croatia faced climate changes followed by a warming trend. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to estimate the influence of weather on AFs occurrence in maize from Serbia and Croatia in the 2018–2021 period. The results indicate that hot and dry weather witnessed in the year 2021 resulted in the highest prevalence of AFs in maize samples in both Serbia (84%) and Croatia (40%). In maize harvested in 2018–2020, AFs occurred in less than, or around, 10% of Serbian and 20% of Croatian samples. In order to conduct a comprehensive study on the implications of climate change for the occurrence of AFs in maize grown in these two countries, the results of available studies performed in the last thirteen years were searched for and discussed.