Bacteria with antibiotic‐resistant could seriously threaten to human health, increasing the treatment cost for infections and negatively affecting treatment outcomes. Stress adaptation is one possible mechanism for the acquisition or enhancement of antibiotic resistance in bacteria as a result of cross‐protection. In this study, the effects of acid, salt, and cold stress on the antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes , and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were investigated using the disc diffusion method. For S. Enteritidis, acidic growth conditions increased resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin (p < .05), and addition of 4% NaCl to growth media decreased resistance to chloramphenicol (p < .05). Irrespective of pH and the NaCl concentration of the growth medium, refrigerated E. coli O157:H7 showed increased resistance to amoxycillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and erythromycin (p < .05). Acid‐adapted L. monocytogenes showed decreased the resistance to amoxycillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and tetracycline (p < .05). In conclusion, prolonged exposure of foodborne pathogens to acid, salt, and cold stress alters their antibiotic resistance. However, the effect of acid, salt, and cold stress on bacterial antibiotic resistance depend on both the bacterial species and the specific antibiotic. Therefore, multiple factors need to be considered for a foodborne antimicrobial resistant risk assessment.