Aflatoxin (AF) contamination of the Iranian exporting pistachio has become a major problem in the last decades. In this study, the antifungal effects of smoke produced from the smoldering of several herbal plants were investigated. Four different ratios of plant weight/exposure time (5/5, 10/15, 15/30, and 20 g/45 min) were used from each plant material to smoke two isolates of Aspergillus flavus (A47 and A3), grown in potato dextrose agar (PDA). The results showed that the 20 g/45 min treatment using smoldering cinnamon bark, neem leaves, and clove flowers had efficient inhibitions of 100, 85, and 75%, respectively. Furthermore, the smoking of pistachio inoculated with a spore concentration of 1 × 106 / ml using 30 g of cinnamon bark, neem leaves, and clove flowers for 75 min was capable of preventing the production of different types of AF, that is, B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the treated products. There is a good potential to smoke pistachio with these three herbal plants and prevent the production of AF in pistachio during the handling, storage, and transportation.
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