Research – Implementation of the HACCP System for Apple Juice Concentrate Based on Patulin Prevention and Control



Patulin (PAT) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp., which acts as a contaminant of most apples and their products. The internationally recognized HACCP system is selected as the theoretical basis to more effectively reduce the PAT in apple juice concentrate (AJC). Through field investigation of apple juice concentrate (AJC) production enterprises, we collected 117 samples from 13 steps of AJC production, including whole apple, apple pulp, and apple juice. PAT contents were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and compared with samples from the different production processes. The result demonstrated that the PAT content was significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by five processes, receipt of raw apples, sorting of raw apples, adsorption step, pasteurization, and aseptic filling. These processes were determined as the CCPs. Monitoring systems for maintaining CCPs within acceptable limits were established, and corrective actions were proposed in case a CCP was surpassed. Based on the above-identified CCPs, critical limits, and control methods (corrective actions), a HACCP plan related to the production process of AJC was established. This study provided important guidance for juice manufacturers wishing to effectively control the PAT content in their products.

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