The wild boar is an abundant game species with high reproduction rates. The management of the wild boar population by hunting contributes to the meat supply and can help to avoid a spillover of transmissible animal diseases to domestic pigs, thus compromising food security. By the same token, wild boar can carry foodborne zoonotic pathogens, impacting food safety. We reviewed literature from 2012–2022 on biological hazards, which are considered in European Union legislation and in international standards on animal health. We identified 15 viral, 10 bacterial, and 5 parasitic agents and selected those nine bacteria that are zoonotic and can be transmitted to humans via food. The prevalence of Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and Yersinia enterocolitica on muscle surfaces or in muscle tissues of wild boar varied from 0 to ca. 70%. One experimental study reported the transmission and survival of Mycobacterium on wild boar meat. Brucella, Coxiella burnetii, Listeria monocytogenes, and Mycobacteria have been isolated from the liver and spleen. For Brucella, studies stressed the occupational exposure risk, but no indication of meat-borne transmission was evident. Furthermore, the transmission of C. burnetii is most likely via vectors (i.e., ticks). In the absence of more detailed data for the European Union, it is advisable to focus on the efficacy of current game meat inspection and food safety management systems.