Research – Proposal and Verification of the Theory of Layer-by-Layer Elimination of Biofilm in Listeria monocytogenes



Biofilms are microbial communities that represent a high abundance of microbial life forms on Earth. Within biofilms, structural changes during clearance processes occur in three spatial and temporal dimensions; therefore, microscopy and quantitative image analysis are essential in elucidating their function. Here, we present confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in conjunction with ISA-2 software analysis for the automated and high-throughput quantification, analysis, and visualisation of biofilm interiors and overall biofilm properties in three spatial and temporal dimensions. This paper discusses the removal process of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) biofilms using slightly acidic electrolytic water, non-electrolytic hypochlorite water, and alternating the use of strongly acidic and strongly alkaline electrolytic water. The results show that the biofilm gradually thins and gutters from the initial viscous dense and thick morphology under the action of either biocide. This process is consistent with first-level kinetics. After CLSM filming to observe the biofilm structure, analysis software was used to process and quantify the biovolume, average biofilm thickness, biofilm roughness and other indicators; fluorescence enzyme markers were used to verify the remaining amount of extracellular nucleic acid. In this study, we proposed and validated the theory of layer-by-layer elimination of LM biofilm.

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