Research – A Highly Effective Bacteriophage-1252 to Control Multiple Serovars of Salmonella enterica



Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) is the most common foodborne pathogen worldwide, leading to massive economic loss and a significant burden on the healthcare system. The primary source of S. enterica remains contaminated or undercooked poultry products. Considering the number of foodborne illnesses with multiple antibiotic resistant S. enterica, new controlling approaches are necessary. Bacteriophage (phage) therapies have emerged as a promising alternative to controlling bacterial pathogens. However, the limitation on the lysis ability of most phages is their species-specificity to the bacterium. S. enterica has various serovars, and several major serovars are involved in gastrointestinal diseases in the USA. In this study, Salmonella bacteriophage-1252 (phage-1252) was isolated and found to have the highest lytic activity against multiple serovars of S. enterica, including Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, Kentucky, and Gallinarum. Whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed phage-1252 is a novel phage strain that belongs to the genus Duplodnaviria in the Myoviridae family, and consists of a 244,421 bp dsDNA, with a G + C content of 48.51%. Its plaque diameters are approximately 2.5 mm to 0.5 mm on the agar plate. It inhibited Salmonella Enteritidis growth after 6 h. The growth curve showed that the latent and rise periods were approximately 40 min and 30 min, respectively. The burst size was estimated to be 56 PFU/cell. It can stabilize and maintain original activity between 4 °C and 55 °C for 1 h. These results indicate that phage-1252 is a promising candidate for controlling multiple S. enterica serovars in food production.

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