Research – The Efficacy of Conventional Spray, Electrostatic Spray, and Dip with a Combination of Hydrogen Peroxide and Peroxyacetic Acid to Inactivate Listeria monocytogenes on Apples

Journal of Food Protection

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and peroxyacetic-acid (PAA) mixer delivered by conventional garden sprayer (GS), electrostatic sprayer (ES) and dip methods to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes on apples. Organic Honey Crisp ( HC ), Fuji ( FJ ), and Pink Lady ( PL ) were dip-inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (2-strain, serotype 1/2b), which were then kept untreated (control), sprayed with water only, or treated with the H 2 O 2 -PAA mixer (0.0064, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.50%) for 20 s via GS, ES, or dip, followed by draining (2 min) on aluminum foil. Surviving bacteria were recovered on Modified Oxford agar. Atomic force microcopy was used to detect the structural changes of inactivation of L. monocytogenes in broth medium by the H 2 O 2 -PAA mixer solution. Data (2 replicates/6 samples/replicate) were analyzed using the Mixed Model Procedure of SAS ( P =0.05). Initial counts of L. monocytogenes on untreated apples were 6.80 to 6.90 log CFU/apple. The dip method was the most effective treatment (P<0.05) on pathogen reductions (2.31-2.41 log CFU/apple) followed by GS (1.44-1.70 log CFU/apple) and then ES (0.84-1.20 log CFU/apples). Reductions of L. monocytogenes were greatest ( P < 0.05) when apples were treated with H 2 O 2 -PAA mixer -0.25 and -0.50%. Atomic force microscopy analyses indicated that inactivation of L. monocytogenes cells in H2O2-PAA mixer solutions resulted from disruption of the outer membrane. The H 2 O 2 -PAA mixer treated cells had increased width, height and decreased roughness when compared to the untreated cells. Results suggested that applying a H 2 O 2 -PAA mixer by dip or GS methods is better for pathogen reduction than ES on apples.

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